INDEX OF ARTICLES:
--click on any title to go directly to the article,
click on the article title to return to this list--
BILL O'REILLY INTERVIEWS UFO ABDUCTEES
TRAUMA OF 9/11 HEADING FOR THE BIG SCREEN
CHINA: STRANGE CRAFT CAUSES NEAR MISS
ANCIENT CIVILIZATION / ANCIENT EARTH
EARLY MAN WAS HUNTED BY BIRDS
CHINA BEAT COLUMBUS TO IT, PERHAPS
DEBATE CONTINUES OVER 40,000 YEAR OLD FOOTPRINTS
CELESTIAL AND MATHEMATICAL PRECISION IN ANCIENT ARCHITECTURE
2006-YEAR OF NEW UNDERWATER SHIPWRECK DISCOVERY AND EXPLORATION
CRYPTOZOOLOGY / FLORA & FAUNA ANOMALIES
STRANGE FISH WASHES ASHORE IN CAYMAN ISLANDS
MALAYSIA CREATES TEAM TO TRACK 'BIGFOOT'
FRANKLIN COUNTY'S WILD CRYPTO ZOO
CATTLE MUTILATIONS FROM ABOVE
GEOLOGY / EARTH
TWO NEW LAKES FOUND BENEATH ANTARCTIC ICE
EARTH WARMS UP REGULARLY
MINING ON MARS
MARS SYMBOLS AND PYRAMIDS
MARS HAS SEASONS
MARS VEGETATION AND CIVILIZATION
SPACE / SCIENCE
SKEPTICISM GREETS CLAIM OF POSSIBLE ALIEN MICROBES
CHINA TO BUILD 'ARTIFICIAL SUN' ENERGY DEVICE
UFO / ET
CHINA OVERTAKES CANADA IN OUTER SPACE SEARCH FOR ALIENS
HUBBLE PHOTO OF UFO ARTIFACT
MYSTICISM AND UFO SIGHTINGS
CALIFORNIA: VIDEO OF EXPLODING UNKNOWN OBJECT 01-18-06
CHEMTRAILS AND ALUMINUM HARM HEART, LUNGS AND PLANTS
THE CHEMTRAIL SMOKING GUN: PROOF OF GLOBAL GEOENGINEERING PROJECTS
MYSTERIOUS BOOMS RETURN
UFO Abductions in Germany, Austria and Switzerland
Johannes Fiebag, Ph.D. Lecture in 1997
edited by Katharina Wilson
Dr. Johannes Fiebag was born in 1956, and is Germany's leading abduction research specialist. He has published many books about alien contact in ancient and modern times, and four books specifically about the abduction phenomenon in Germany, Austria, and Switzerland. Dr. Fiebag founded the CE-IV-Report, a newsletter for abductees, and he also organizes an annual meeting called Project Exchange that allows abductees to network with one another. In addition to CE-IV-Report and Project Exchange, Dr. Fiebag has also formed an interdisciplinary organization of psychiatrists, psychologists and other medical professionals who work to help traumatized abductees.
Full story: http://www.worldofthestrange.com/modules.php?
SOURCE: World of the Strange http://www.worldofthestrange.com/
BILL O'REILLY INTERVIEWS UFO ABDUCTEES
Last night (01-13-06) Bill O'Reilly, on his cable program The O'Reilly Factor, interviewed Clayton and Donna Lee concerning their claims that they have been abducted by UFOs.
O'Reilly was respectful during the interview but he also was honest in his assessment when he told them that a lot of people would think they are a couple of nuts for believing they had been abducted by UFOs. At the end of the interview he asked them if they had ever taken a lie detector test and neither of them had. In fact, they both laughed at the prospect and said that they knew what happened to them because they were there.
I have my thoughts about the whole idea of UFO abduction and aliens - in a word - demonic. Some research has shown that people who have claimed to be abducted by
“aliens” have also been heavily involved in the occult, witchcraft and the New Age movement.
One interesting comment that Donna Lee made was that the aliens she saw were tall, blonde and looked
“human like.” If you believe in the demonic realm, and also the written word of God, this makes total sense. Read about the Nephilim in the Old Testament and then you decide if alien abductions are real, demonic or something else. I'll stick with demonic any day.
SOURCE: http://writingright.typepad.com/writingright/2006/01/oreilly_intervi.html ;
UFO Casebook 2-06-06 http://www.ufocasebook.com/020606.html
TRAUMA OF 9/11 HEADING FOR THE BIG SCREEN
Four movies are in various stages of production; up first,
the story of passengers on
By Heather Timmons
The New York Times
_083448_AE03_911.1.jpg The site in Shanksville, Pa., where United Flight 93 crashed
on Sept. 11, 2001. (AP / Ted S. Warren)]
Iver Heath, England - With a violent shudder, the front of a reconstructed Boeing 757 pitches toward the ground. Actors struggle not to slide from their seats, some screaming, one chanting,
“Oh, my God.” A camera flits from seat to seat, stopping to focus on individual vignettes of terror, as an actor playing a hijacker barks,
“Sit down!” over the loudspeaker.
After almost universally shying away from the topic for the past four years, Hollywood is turning in full force to the events of Sept. 11, 2001. Painful memories, all-too-familiar news clips and personal stories are now being transformed into big-screen dramas, as studios look for commercial value in the still-fresh trauma, while prompting the mass audience to revisit its thoughts and feelings.
This spring will bring the release of the first feature film to focus specifically on the attacks:
“Flight 93,” from director Paul Greengrass, based on the hijacking that led to the crash of a United Airlines plane into a field in Somerset County, Pa.
The movie, to be released by Universal Pictures, is being filmed in Pinewood Studios (the site of many James Bond films). The filmmakers said
“Flight 93” had the cooperation of all the families of the passengers who died on the flight. Many agreed to participate because they felt that previous attempts to document the crash focused on just the few passengers who had been able to make calls to their family members.
“The Bourne Supremacy” but is perhaps better known for the 2002 movie “Bloody Sunday,” which reconstructed the notorious 1972 incident in which 13 unarmed civil rights demonstrators were killed by British soldiers in Londonderry, Northern Ireland.
“Flight 93,” Greengrass incorporates information about the disaster, including the plane's exact movements in the air, the times and content of phone calls to family members, recordings from inside the cockpit and reaction on the ground from air traffic controllers and the military, as well as details about the passengers' personalities and mannerisms provided by the families.
The goal is to weave what he calls
“a believable truth” about what happened in midair. Many of the scenes in the plane are being filmed in long, grueling takes, with actors improvising dialogue and actions.
“One of the reasons why Flight 93 exerts such a powerful hold on our
imaginations is precisely because we don't know exactly what happened,” Greengrass said in an interview on the set, a concrete hangar dominated by the sections of the rebuilt plane, which are on mechanized scaffolding to make them pitch and roll during filming.
“Which one of us doesn't think about that day and wonder how it must have been and how we might have reacted?” he asked.
Also in the works are several more traditionally structured dramas. Oliver Stone's movie about the last two men to be rescued from the World Trade Center, starring Nicolas Cage, is beginning production in Los Angeles.
“Reign O'er Me,” directed by Mike Binder, to be released in 2007, will star Adam Sandler as a man who lost his family on Sept. 11 and is still grieving. Also is the works for 2007 is an adaptation of
“102 Minutes” by Jim Dwyer and Kevin Flynn, a book that recreates the moments between the first plane's crash into the World Trade Center and the second tower's collapse.
“Hollywood has a long history of engaging with big historical narratives, and 9/11 is nothing if not a big, dramatic, historical narrative,” said Marita Sturken, an associate professor in New York University's department of culture and communication. Until now, filmmakers have largely avoided the events of Sept. 11 (with the exception of Spike Lee's
“25th Hour,” which used the scars of New York City as a backdrop), partly from a sense that the trauma is too immediate to draw audiences.
“I don't know what the good time is” to make these movies, said Carole O'Hare, the daughter of Hilda Marcin, one of the 40 passengers and crew on Flight 93.
“I do know that prior to this date, it would not have been a good time.
“We all knew it would come eventually,” she said, and “given the opportunity
for input and involvement, I would rather have my say than be put in the
A researcher for “Flight 93,” Kate Solomon, contacted the victims' families to solicit their support, and Greengrass and one of the film's producers, Lloyd Levin, met with many.
“When Paul and Lloyd came to us, they were very concerned about being as accurate as they could possibly be,” O'Hare said, and they promised to represent all the passengers, not just a few.
“It's nice that you can include them all, and honor them all.”
If the Sept. 11 films are being made as commercial enterprises, Sturken said, they are also an important way for
“our various cultures” to work out the meaning of the events behind them. The way these stories are told has much to do with the
“way that we want them preserved,” she said.
“There is a pretty big audience for that story,” she added,
“if - and this is crucial - if people perceive it to be sensitively told.” Inevitably, some people will not want to watch these movies.
“Different people cope with very horrible experiences in different ways,” said Dr. Cynthia Pfeffer, a professor of psychiatry at Weill Medical College of Cornell University, who has treated many patients affected by the events of Sept. 11. Some people who were close to the situation or lost loved ones should probably choose to avoid the films altogether, because they will just reignite traumatic feelings, she said. Others may want to go with someone they can talk to about the movie afterward.
For Greengrass, though, it was the story's broader implications that inspired him to make
“Forty ordinary people had 30 minutes to confront the reality of the way that we're living now, decide on the best course of action and act,” he said. The passengers were the
“first people to inhabit the post-9/11 world,” he continued. “They had to
choose because they were in that airplane. Their choices are our choices,
and their debate is our debate.”
CHINA: STRANGE CRAFT CAUSES NEAR MISS
Bohai Sea -- Recently, China's CCTV reported that six Chinese Air Force pilots of the Flight Performance Teams witnessed a large unidentified aircraft formation flying toward them resulting in a near mid-air collision. Air traffic control radar systems were unable to observe and/or record the unidentified formation. On the CCTV program
“Approaching Science” , Feng Yi, deputy team lead of the Chinese Air Force Flight Performance Team, a top level pilot with 3,000 hours of flying experience, talked about this unusual experience.
Image: Chinese J-11 Air Superiority Fighters:
Feng and his team were conducting the performance training over the Bohai Sea. At 9 a.m., the flight team reached an altitude of 21,000 feet. Suddenly a large unidentified formation of planes appeared just about 30 miles left to them flying from southeast to northwest. Feng reported this observation immediately to the Air Traffic Control Center and requested them to conduct a search, but no other airplanes were reported on radar. Feng's teammates have also seen the same aircraft formations. The airplanes both he and his team have seen, all represented different countries from different periods of history.
Propeller types as well as jets had been included in the formations. It is highly unlikely that all of the pilots had the same illusion at the same time. Some experts believe perhaps it was a scene from another dimension or even another time. China has the largest Air Force in the world with over 6,000 planes.
Thanks to Epoch Times. Jan 08, 2006.
Filer's Files #3 - January 18, 2006
RESEARCHER: EARLY MAN WAS HUNTED BY BIRDS
By ALEXANDRA ZAVIS
Associated Press Writer Jan 12, 2006
JOHANNESBURG, South Africa -- A South African anthropologist said Thursday his research into the death nearly 2 million years ago of an ape-man shows human ancestors were hunted by birds.
“These types of discoveries give us real insight into the past lives of these human ancestors, the world they lived in and the things they feared,” Lee Berger, a paleo-anthropologist at Johannesburg's University of Witwatersrand, said as he presented his conclusions about a mystery that has been debated since the remains of the possible human ancestor known as the Taung child were discovered in 1924.
The Taung child's discovery led to the search for human origins in Africa, instead of in Asia or Europe as once theorized. Researchers regard the fossil of the ape-man, or Australopithecus africanus, as evidence of the
“missing link” in human evolution.
Researchers had speculated the Taung child was killed by a leopard or saber-toothed feline. But 10 years ago, Berger and fellow researcher Ron Clarke submitted the theory the hunter was a large predatory bird, based on the fact most of the other fossils found at the same site were small monkeys that showed signs of having been killed by a predatory bird.
Berger and Clarke had until now been unable to show damage on the child's skull that could have been done by a bird.
Five months ago, Berger read an Ohio State University study of the hunting abilities of modern eagles in West Africa believed similar to predatory birds of the Taung child's era.
The Ohio State study determined that eagles would swoop down, pierce monkey skulls with their thumb-like back talons, then hover while their prey died before returning to tear at the skull. Examination of thousands of monkey remains produced a pattern of damage done by birds, including holes and ragged cuts in the shallow bones behind the eye sockets.
Berger went back to the Taung skull, and found traces of the ragged cuts behind the eye sockets. He said none of the researchers who had for decades been debating how the child died had noticed the eye socket damage before.
Berger concluded man's ancestors had to survive not just being hunted from the ground, but from the air. Such discoveries are
“key to understanding why we humans today view the world they way we do,” he said.
Berger's research has been reviewed by others and is due to appear in the February edition of the American Journal of Physical Anthropology.
CHINA BEAT COLUMBUS TO IT, PERHAPS
Jan 12th 2006
From The Economist print edition
Ancient map strongly suggests that Chinese seamen were first round the world
THE brave seamen whose great voyages of exploration opened up the world are iconic figures in European history. Columbus found the New World in 1492; Dias discovered the Cape of Good Hope in 1488; and Magellan set off to circumnavigate the world in 1519. However, there is one difficulty with this confident assertion of European mastery: it may not be true.
It seems more likely that the world and all its continents were discovered by a Chinese admiral named Zheng He, whose fleets roamed the oceans between 1405 and 1435. His exploits, which are well documented in Chinese historical records, were written about in a book which appeared in China around 1418 called
“The Marvelous Visions of the Star Raft” .
Next week, in Beijing and London, fresh and dramatic evidence is to be revealed to bolster Zheng He's case. It is a copy, made in 1763, of a map, dated 1418, which contains notes that substantially match the descriptions in the book.
“It will revolutionize our thinking about 15th-century world history,” says Gunnar Thompson, a student of ancient maps and early explorers.
The map (shown above) will be unveiled in Beijing on January 16th and at the National Maritime Museum in Greenwich a day later. Six Chinese characters in the upper right-hand corner of the map say this is a
“general chart of the integrated world” . In the lower left-hand corner is a note that says the chart was drawn by Mo Yi Tong, imitating a world chart made in 1418 which showed the barbarians paying tribute to the Ming emperor, Zhu Di. The copyist distinguishes what he took from the original from what he added himself.
The map was bought for about $500 from a small Shanghai dealer in 2001 by Liu Gang, one of the most eminent commercial lawyers in China, who collects maps and paintings. Mr. Liu says he knew it was significant, but thought it might be a modern fake. He showed his acquisition to five experienced collectors, who agreed that the traces of vermin on the bamboo paper it is written on, and the de-pigmentation of ink and colors, indicated that the map was more than 100 years old.
Mr. Liu was unsure of its meaning, and asked specialists in ancient Chinese history for their advice, but none, he says, was forthcoming. Then, last autumn, he read
“1421: The Year China Discovered the World” , a book written in 2003 by Gavin Menzies, in which the author makes the controversial claim that Zheng He circumnavigated the world, discovering America on the way. Mr. Menzies, who is a former submariner in the Royal Navy and a merchant banker, is an amateur historian and his theory met with little approval from professionals. But it struck a chord: his book became a bestseller and his 1421 website is very popular. In any event, his arguments convinced Mr. Liu that his map was a relic of Zheng He's earlier voyages.
The detail on the copy of the map is remarkable. The outlines of Africa, Europe and the Americas are instantly recognizable. It shows the Nile with two sources. The north-west passage appears to be free of ice. But the inaccuracies, also, are glaring. California is shown as an island; the British Isles do not appear at all. The distance from the Red Sea to the Mediterranean is ten times greater than it ought to be. Australia is in the wrong place (though cartographers no longer doubt that Australia and New Zealand were discovered by Chinese seamen centuries before Captain Cook arrived on the scene).
The commentary on the map, which seems to have been drawn from the original, is written in clear Chinese characters which can still be easily read. Of the west coast of America, the map says:
“The skin of the race in this area is black-red, and feathers are wrapped around their heads and waists.” Of the Australians, it reports:
“The skin of the aborigine is also black. All of them are naked and wearing
bone articles around their waists.”
But this remarkable precision, rather than the errors, is what critics of the Menzies theory are likely to use to question the authenticity of the 1418 map. Mr. Menzies and his followers are naturally extremely keen to establish that the 1763 copy is not a forgery and that it faithfully represents the 1418 original. This would lend weighty support to their thesis: that China had indeed discovered America by (if not actually in) 1421. Mass spectrography analysis to date the copied map is under way at Waikato University in New Zealand, and the results will be announced in February. But even if affirmative, this analysis is of limited importance since it can do no more than date the copyist's paper and inks.
Five academic experts on ancient charts note that the 1418 map puts together information that was available piecemeal in China from earlier nautical maps, going back to the 13th century and Kublai Khan, who was no mean explorer himself. They believe it is authentic.
The map makes good estimates of the latitude and longitude of much of the world, and recognizes that the earth is round.
“The Chinese were almost certainly aware of longitude before Zheng He set sail,” says Robert Cribbs of California State University. They certainly assumed the world was round.
“The format of the map is totally consistent with the level of knowledge that we should expect of royal Chinese geographers following the voyages of Zheng He,” says Mr. Thompson.
Moreover, some of the errors in the 1418 map soon turned up in European maps, the most striking being California drawn as an island. The Portuguese are aware of a world map drawn before 1420 by a cartographer named Albertin di Virga, which showed Africa and the Americas. Since no Portuguese seamen had yet discovered those places, the most obvious source for the information seems to be European copies of Chinese maps.
But this is certainly not a unanimous view among the experts, with many of the fiercest critics in China itself. Wang Tai-Peng, a scholarly journalist in Vancouver who does not doubt that the Chinese explored the world early in the 15th century (he has written about a visit by Chinese ambassadors to Florence in 1433), doubts whether Zheng He's ships landed in North America. Mr. Wang also claims that Zheng He's navigation maps were drawn in a totally different Chinese map-making tradition.
“Until the 1418 map is scientifically authenticated, we still have to take it with a grain of salt,” he says.
Most forgeries are driven by a commercial imperative, especially when the market for ancient maps is booming, as it is now. The Library of Congress recently paid $10m for a copy of a 1507 world map by Martin Waldseemuller, a German cartographer. But Mr. Liu says he is not a seller:
“The map is part of my life,” he claims.
The consequences of the discovery of this map could be considerable. If it does indeed prove to be the first map of the world,
“the history of New World discovery will have to be rewritten,” claims Mr. Menzies. How much does this matter? Showing that the world was first explored by Chinese rather than European seamen would be a major piece of historical revisionism. But there is more to history than that. It is no less interesting that the Chinese, having discovered the extent of the world, did not exploit it, politically or commercially. After all, Columbus's discovery of America led to exploitation and then development by Europeans which, 500 years later, made the United States more powerful than China had ever been.
~AND~ OLD MAP FOUND IN A SHANGHAI SHOP MAY REWRITE HISTORY'S
VOYAGES OF DISCOVERY
The controversial chart, said to be an 18th century copy of a 1418 map made long
“discovered” the New World.
By Mary-Anne Toy, Beijing
January 16, 2006
“evidence” to prove that Chinese navigators circumnavigated the world and discovered the Americas, Australia and Antarctica decades before Columbus, Magellan and others will be unveiled in Beijing tonight.
The evidence is said to be an 18th century copy of a 1418 map that includes the Americas and Australia well before Europeans
“discovered” the New World.
If authentic, it means the Chinese beat Christopher Columbus by about 70 years, and 500 years of history would have to be rewritten.
The map's owner, Liu Gang, is a founding partner in one of Beijing's big commercial law firms. He is also a map collector, and in 2001 he spotted a beautifully drawn map of ink on bamboo paper in a Shanghai dealer's store.
According to Chinese characters on the map, it was drawn by one Mo Yi Tong in 1763 and was a gift to the emperor. It was a copy of a 1418 original, and carefully differentiates between later information added by Mo Yi Tong and the 1418 original, which included the Americas and Australia.
Given that Columbus did not
“discover” America until 1492 — as every Chinese student is still taught — how could the Chinese have drawn an accurate world map in 1418?
These were the glory days of the Ming dynasty, when China's most celebrated mariner, Admiral Zheng He, made his epic voyages of discovery in the Pacific and Indian oceans to more than 30 countries with a mighty fleet of as many as 300 vessels.
His travels extended Chinese influence throughout South-East Asia, Africa, India and the Middle East. But he was never credited with rounding the Cape of Good Hope.
Mr. Liu suspected the map might be a forgery, or just wrong, but bought it anyway for $US500 ($A660). The Chinese experts he later consulted offered no explanation. His own research led him to the startling conclusion that Zheng must have sailed farther west than history had so far recognized, and before 1418.
If all this is sounding familiar, then it is. In 2003, a British amateur historian, Gavin Menzies, in his book 1421 — The Year China Discovered the World, made the controversial claim that between 1421 and 1423, a few years later than posited by Mr. Liu, Zheng He's fleets sailed round the Cape of Good Hope, up the coast of Africa, crossed the Atlantic, went down the coast of South America, through the Magellan Straits, down to Antarctica, over to Australia, around to what became the first American colony of Massachusetts, up to Greenland and reached Europe.
Though Menzies was savaged by many critics and most scholars for his use of circumstantial evidence and questionable assumptions, his book has become a bestseller, spawning a website, a two-part television series and plans for a film in the pipeline.
When Mr. Liu read Menzies' book last year it convinced him that the map was real and that it provided crucial evidence to back his theory. He contacted Menzies and arranged to release the map.
Tonight's unveiling of the map (actually a copy, as the real one is locked away in a bank vault, at a Beijing bookshop-cafe popular with expats, is unlikely to convince the skeptics and will enchant the true believers.
The Beijing launch is to be followed by a lecture in London tomorrow by Menzies to the Friends of the National Maritime Museum in Greenwich.
The National Museum, on Tiananmen Square, which is holding an exhibition on Zheng He's undisputed achievements, does not include any reference to Menzies' theory and was unaware of Mr. Liu's map. A museum spokesman said most Chinese scholars dismissed Menzies' views.
Dr Gunnar Thompson, a Menzies supporter and researcher in new world voyages, said Liu Gang's map would
“revolutionize our thinking” about 15th century world history.
Mr. Liu is not fazed by taking on the history establishment, and is confident that he and Menzies will be proved right, eventually.
THE RISE OF CHINA'S GREATEST MARINER, ZHENG
- He was 10 when the Han army invaded his central Asian home, ousting the ruling Mongols. The Han butchered the adult men and castrated the boys, some of whom, including Zheng, were taken to the capital to be palace servants.
- Within 20 years, the eunuch Zheng had risen to become a confidant of Zhu Di, the third emperor of the Ming Dynasty. At the emperor's command, he assembled a navy and set out to spread the glory of China to the world and establish trade.
- Between 1405 and 1433, he set sail seven times, reaching Iran, Oman, Yemen, Saudi Arabia, Kenya, Tanzania, India and Sri Lanka. His fleets, comprising 48 to more than 300 junks with a crew of up to 28,000, dwarfed that of the later European explorers.
- He is still revered as a god throughout South-East Asia. Last year was the 600th anniversary of his first epic voyage.
- After his last voyage, Confucian scholars in the imperial court, who had waged a losing battle against the eunuchs and who opposed exploration, finally won back control. They set about destroying all official records of the voyages.
- Zheng's tomb is in Nanjing.
DEBATE CONTINUES OVER 40,000 YEAR OLD FOOTPRINTS
It was a sensational discovery - human footprints said to be 40,000 years old, preserved by volcanic ash in an abandoned quarry in Mexico. The announcement, in July last year, created a flurry of excitement, but was then promptly dismissed by a second team of researchers who re-dated the rocks at 1.3 million years old, impossibly ancient to bear human traces.
The original claim has not gone away, however.
The first widespread evidence for the human occupation of North America came from the town of Clovis in New Mexico. The beautiful fluted stone-spear points made by the Clovis people are found on many sites and date back 11,500 years or so. They are believed to have been left by people who crossed a land bridge that once existed between Siberia and Alaska.
But there is an increasing body of evidence for earlier occupation of the Americas, dating back to a time when the overland route through the ice would have been impossible.
The best evidence probably comes from Monte Verde in Chile and dates back at least 12,500 years. But to have reached so far south by then, people must have entered the continent earlier still.
There have been many claims of earlier dates, but few have been substantiated. So the announcement of 40,000-year-old footprints from Mexico was greeted with skepticism and caution. It came from a team led by Silvia Gonzalez, a Mexican working at Liverpool John Moores University (JMU), UK.
In 2003, she was visiting a site at Cerro Toluquilla in the Valsequillo Basin. It is near Puebla, about 100km southeast of Mexico City. It is a dry environment with many small volcanoes and, in the distance, the smoking peak of Popocatepetl. She was hoping to find the geological context of deposits that had yielded animal bones showing possible butchery marks and dating back 20 or 30,000 years.
The researchers were looking for a vertical section through the rocks in the side of a small quarry, but it was overgrown and strewn with debris. As they were about to give up, they noticed that the floor of the quarry was made of a single layer of hardened volcanic ash called the xalnene tuff. It looks a bit like a badly asphalted car park.
Silvia Gonzalez had studied much younger human tracks in Lancashire and thought she could see similar markings in the volcanic ash.
“Suddenly, I began to see some marks on the top surface of the ash... and I recognized them as human footprints,” she told the BBC's Unearthing Mysteries program.
“I felt quite shocked, because I knew already that this ash was very old.”
At first, her colleagues laughed at her, but soon they were brushing away the dust with excitement. A large area of the quarry has now been cleared and the researchers are making a detailed digital laser survey of the marks.
Some are clearly animal tracks left by perhaps deer and buffalo and running for several meters. Others do seem to resemble human footprints though there are few in a continuous track. They are of several sizes suggesting both adults and children.
The ash is too coarse to have left clear toe prints but some certainly appear to be from left or right feet with a raised arch and material bunched up behind the toes as the person pushed forwards up the gentle slope.
Gonzalez' colleague at JMU, Professor Dave Huddart, demonstrated the likeness to his own feet:
“If I put my foot beside it, size 8½, it looks a typical size; it's got the
characteristic figure-of-eight shape and the big toe is there, so it's a
Professor Mike Waters of Texas A&M University is skeptical. He thinks the marks are products of the quarrying process and subsequent erosion. There are certainly some marks at the site that are very obviously due to that and seem much fresher - pick marks and tracks from mechanical diggers.
More controversial still are the dates. Colleagues of Silvia Gonzalez at Oxford University used a technique called optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) that records the last time rocks were exposed to sunlight or heat.
That gave a variety of dates from the overlying sediments, but when applied to small fragments of what looked like brick or burnt clay within the volcanic ash, it produced a date of about 40,000 years.
That initially shocked Dr Gonzalez as it implied by far the earliest evidence of humans in the Americas. But it fitted in with dates of up to 38,000 years based on carbon 14 in shells in the sediments above.
In December, however, Paul Renne of the Berkley Geochronology Center in California published dates for the volcanic ash itself based on the powerful argon-argon technique that gave an age of 1.3 million years, far too old to be compatible with human footprints.
“I don't think that they are [footprints],” he told the BBC. “There are no
trails of footprints that are consistent, the shapes don't really look like
footprints, and, most importantly, there's a huge diversity of shapes, sizes
and arrangements of these things.”
Professor Renne measured the age of several different grains in the ash and got the same age for each. Dr Gonzalez, though, says that the volcano responsible is complex. It interrupted explosively underneath a lake and lots of older material and lake sediment may have been caught up in the ash, distorting the date.
Furthermore, there do not seem to be the signs of erosion and weathering that would be expected if there had been a gap of more than a million years between the ash and the overlying sediments.
Professor Renne also looked at the magnetization of the rocks, partly to see if they might have been jumbled up and redeposited from an earlier material, which, he says, they were not. But he did find that the magnetic polarity was the opposite of the Earth's present magnetic field. The Earth's magnetic poles do occasionally flip.
“The last time the Earth's magnetic field had consistently reversed polarity was about 790,000 years ago, so the fact that we found reversed polarity magnetization in this rock tells us that it's older than 790,000 years,” he said.
Silvia Gonzalez' view?
“We know that there are short-term 'excursions' of the magnetic field, and
one of those happened 40,000 years ago, very interestingly.”
“How did I know they were going to say that? There is a finite possibility
that that is correct, but the probability is extremely low.”
It seems this debate really is going to run and run.
To answer the criticisms, Dr Gonzalez and her colleagues hope now to get permission to excavate for further footprints that would not be associated with any quarrying marks and to get more secure and consistent dates for the rocks.
“That would convince even the most intense critics,” she said. “We need to
talk to each other to make a continental model of human migration across the
Americas. It won't be done in a few years. It will take a lifetime, but we
are not afraid to do that.”
If she succeeds, this little quarry could become one of the most important archaeological sites in the Americas.
A final comment from Professor David Meltzer, from Southern Methodist University, Dallas. He has researched and written extensively on the subject of the
“first Americans” . He told the BBC: “I'm not averse to the idea of 40 000-year-old people in the New World - but I'm skeptical because we've been fooled before.
“We want to see it confirmed with all the evidence laid out so that we're
not buying in to something that isn't there.”
SOURCE: BBC http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/sci/tech/4617466.stm
Conspiracy Journal #349 1/20/06 http://uforeview.tripod.com/conspiracyjournal349.html
CELESTIAL AND MATHEMATICAL PRECISION IN ANCIENT ARCHITECTURE
And we think we’re advanced
Melissa Hiebert Staff
Many ancient ruins demonstrate that the people who constructed them had not only a special regard for celestial bodies and mathematics, but also a spot-on accuracy. From Egypt to Mexico, there is no doubt that past civilizations were involved in incredibly complex space calculations, mathematics and architectural endeavors. Although many historians and archaeologists debate exactly what these civilizations did intentionally and what they did by mere chance, here are a few examples of how ancient architecture was created with mathematics and the cosmos in mind.
There are many examples of attention to spatial coordinates. For instance, the Great Pyramid’s faces are aligned with the four cardinal directions almost perfectly. In fact, they are less than 0.2 of a degree off. The pyramid is very precise, with the corners as little as two seconds of a degree (with 60 seconds in a minute of a degree, and 60 minutes in a degree) off of a 90-degree angle. In addition to this (although contested), the pyramids at Giza seem to match the stars of Orion’s belt with a certain precision.
The Site of Teotihuacan,
“The Pyramid of the Sun,” as it has been dubbed, demonstrates advanced math. The pyramid’s base has a perimeter of 2932.8 feet, while the pyramid has a height of about 233.5 feet. If we take the ratio of base to height, we get about 12.56, or rather, 4p. Although to some this is thought to be a coincidence, the pyramid’s actual ratio is less than 0.05 per cent off of the true value for 4p.
The ancient Mayan site of Chichen Itza exemplifies the culture’s celestial orientation. The huge step pyramid (the pyramid of Kukulcan) that is the focus of the site has 91 steps on each of its sides, which add up to 364 steps. Adding the platform on top, there are 365 steps in total — the number of days in a year. Also, on the vernal and autumnal equinoxes (the first day of spring and fall, when day and night are the same length of time), the sunlight works to create a shadow of a giant serpent on the staircase that faces north.
A building called the Caracol, believed to have served as an observatory, is also found at the site of Chichen Itza. The windows are set up to align with certain points of interest. Although the top is damaged, remaining windows point to the northern and southern-most positions of Venus, the position of sunset on the Equinoxes, and the corners of the building itself point to the sunrises and sets of the solstices.
The Mayans had a sophisticated calendar, losing only one day in 6000 years. Their predictions of solar and lunar eclipses were incredibly accurate. As many have heard, they predicted a date that they believed would be the end of the world. This date, translated to our calendar, is on December 23, 2012. Although unlikely, the world is predicted to suddenly end in about seven years (if we have just translated the meaning of their calendar correctly).
The Mayans did have some rationale behind this number. This date marks the time in the precessional cycle of the earth that we will move out of the constellation of Pisces and on to the age of Aquarius.
What is global precession? I’m glad you asked. Everyone knows that the earth spins on its axis while it revolves around the sun. Most remember from grade 10 science class that the earth’s axis is not perfectly vertical, but rather tilted about 23.5 degrees. However, the axis is not always this way, as it slowly varies from about 24.5 degrees to 22.1 degrees, making a complete cycle every 41,000 years.
While it is moving in this way, due to varying gravitational forces, the axis wobbles (precesses) in a clockwise circle. Just imagine the way the axis of a top spins as it begins to fall. So, the angle of the earth stays the same (or somewhere within its three degree variance), but the direction in which it points changes. For example, our current North Star is Polaris (or Ursae Minoris), as the North Pole points towards this star. However, approximately 13,000 years ago, the North Pole would have pointed towards the star Vega, as it will do again in about another 13,000 years. It takes about 25,776 years to complete one precessional cycle.
Anyone ever heard of the song
“Age of Aquarius” ? Well, this is in reference to the earth’s precessional cycle. Presently we are in the age of Pisces, which means that when the sun rises on the vernal equinox it rises in the direction that the constellation of Pisces is in the sky. However, due to precession, every 2160 years on the vernal equinox the sun rises in a different constellation. As mentioned above, we will be moving out of the age of Pisces and into the age of Aquarius around the end of 2012.
So, the Mayans figured there was something important to the changing of ages, hence their predicted death date. However, they are not the only ones who seem to have taken certain numbers into account. The perimeter of the Great Pyramid at Giza is approximately 3,023 feet and the height is 481 feet. In addition to exemplifying a ratio of exactly 2p, its measurements are said to possibly represent the Northern Hemisphere of the earth, on a scale of 1 : 43,200. Though controversial, some interpret this number as exactly 20 times the precessional number of 2160, representing the precession of the earth through 20 different zodiac constellations or
These examples of precessional numbers, mathematics and celestial orientations found in ancient structures by no means scratch the surface of all of the occurrences (or at least, proposed occurrences) present at various historical sites, and even in cultural songs and myths. Whether or not various theories or speculations concerning these spectacular constructions are true or not (and we may never know), the meticulous precision that was put into planning, calculating and building them is hard to ignore, not to mention awe-inspiring.
AND PAG E-NEWS: January 24 www.pagenews.info
2006-YEAR OF NEW UNDERWATER SHIPWRECK DISCOVERY AND EXPLORATION
The following article is a modified extract of a comment that I made to fellow underwater explorer, Steve Libert about several of my projects over the next three months. I hope that you enjoy....
I thought that it might be tough to top all the exciting and wonderful expeditions that I had in 2005 that included Titanic, Empress of Ireland, the Bermuda Triangle rescue aircraft - Martin Mariner PBM-5, various historical shipwrecks that ranged from naval to merchant and old treasure galleons to ocean liners (including a Blue Riband Cunard Liner Oregon).
2006 is shaping up to be an even better and more historic diving season that will be highlighted by our series of events surrounding the 50th Anniversary of the Collision and Sinking of the Andrea Doria. I will be releasing some new nautical forensic information and underwater video regarding this beautiful Italian liner's sinking that will change the historical perception of that tragic evening. In two weeks, I am off to Florida diving deep in the underground caves using a mixed-gas, closed circuit rebreather (as part of a cave diving course run by two of the world's best instructors - legendary Tom Mount and former British Special Forces diver Andrew Driver).
Hopefully we will find in situ evidence for some prehistoric species deep within these underwater caves (a mastodon or mammoth would be nice). In March, I have two presentations to give. The first presentation is at the American Academy of Underwater Sciences meeting at the University of Washington's Friday Harbor Laboratory (FHL) in the San Juan Islands -located north of Seattle between the mainland and Vancouver Island, British Columbia about the latest scientific observations about the biological decay of Titanic. The second presentation of the month will be at the Mote Marine Laboratory in Sarasota, Florida about Diving to the Italian Liner Andrea Doria.
Before the end of the month of March, I am off to the Black Sea and this should be very interesting - perhaps, if I am very lucky, I might discover Noah's Ark (just kidding!). In addition, I have some other
“secret” shipwreck explorations and projects that I can't quite divulge yet (don't want the bureaucrats to put a damper on all the adventure) but will provide some significant new information about several historic shipwrecks.
Thank you for your continued support for this web site which is globally the number one blog (weblog) for shipwrecks. I find that it is a perfect forum for me to get things off my chest without feeling inhibited about the dives, expeditions and science. As a corporation, Nautical Research Group is thriving and we have been able to pick and choose the best and most interesting underwater projects. Our unique blend of nautical archaeology and deep technical diving - wrapped around our roots in the biological sciences is unparalleled.
STRANGE FISH WASHES ASHORE IN CAYMAN ISLANDS
By Underwatertimes.com News Service
[IMAGE: The small sharp teeth are plainly visible
[IMAGE: The long, eel-like tail tapers to a narrow point
Cayman Brac (January 13, 2006)-- A strange looking sea creature washed up on the shores of Cayman Brac this weekend. Layman Scott found the fish while walking along the beach early Sunday morning. It is roughly thirty inches long, more than half of which is a long, eel-like tail attached to a fish body. It has pale pink scales, pectoral fins, a dorsal fin and a small feathery fin on its belly.
Local fishermen say they have not seen a creature quite like this before. It has boney bristles all along its spine, right down to the tip of its tail and small sharp teeth, which curve slightly inward.
The sighting has been reported to the Department of Environment, but meanwhile, The Bracker and Little Caymanian is inviting readers to see if they can identify this fish.
MALAYSIA CREATES TEAM TO TRACK 'BIGFOOT'
Jan 26, 10:56 AM (ET)
KUALA LUMPUR, Malaysia (AP) - A southern Malaysian state will appoint a team of scientists and experts to hunt for a
“Bigfoot” beast after the reported sighting of three giant human-like creatures, officials said Thursday.
Johor Chief Minister Abdul Ghani Othman said the state will form an official Bigfoot-tracking team in a serious bid to find evidence of such a beast following the reported sightings late last year in the Endau Rompin National Park forest.
“The mystery of Bigfoot's existence has attracted a lot of interest,” he was quoted as saying by the Bernama national news agency.
“We hope the expedition will be able to prove its existence.”
Ghani's aide confirmed the report Thursday, saying state administrators decided to set up the team after a council meeting late Wednesday.
“Bigfoot” is a popular name given in the United States to giant hairy creatures walking on two legs. Sightings of such beasts have been reported in many parts of the world but their existence has never been proven.
Malaysian media have been gripped by Bigfoot fever since November 2005, when fish farm workers reported seeing three giant human-like hairy beasts at the edge of the Endau Rompin reserve. They also claimed to have seen a gigantic footprint which they photographed.
The photo was later printed by local newspapers.
Park officials have combed the site where the men claimed they saw the creatures, but found no physical evidence of their existence. However, they recorded more reports of sightings from Aborigine villagers who live on the park's fringes.
Tourism authorities are planning to capitalize on the sightings to attract visitors to Johor and the park. Wildlife officials said they may set up camera traps in the jungle to capture images of the creature.
FRANKLIN COUNTY'S WILD CRYPTO ZOO
by Tal H. Branco Guest Writer
January 10, 2006
Editors note: The following story was printed in an earlier edition of the Ozark Spectator, and is re-printed in the Charleston Express with permission.
During the past four years The RFP Research Project has received numerous reports from residents of Western Arkansas concerning wild animals they have seen that did not resemble any known native or exotic species.
One such report was received from a life-long resident of Franklin County in early August of this year. On August 17 the writer drove to Ozark to meet the witness. It was a coincident that Lucille Elders' Barnes News column in the Spectator that day mentioned another sighting of an enigmatic animal by a Cravens resident. Ms. Elders herself had seen one of the animals about a year ago, and wrote about the encounter in her column dated September 15, 2004.
The witness the writer had arranged to meet in Ozark is Harley Edgin who lives northeast of Ozark on the north side of Highway 352. The property consists of about 200 acres which is used for cattle ranching. In the fall of 1991 Mr. Edgin and a friend were driving across the property checking on the cattle when they observed two animals standing in the field watching the vehicle. Mr. Edgin stopped the truck, and looked closely at the animals. He and his passenger had initially thought they were seeing two coyotes, but they soon realized they could not identify the animals. The animals sat down on their haunches and nonchalantly watched the vehicle for a few minutes. During that time Mr. Edgin picked up his binoculars and looked intently at both animals for a short time. He then passed the binoculars to his passenger. The animals then ran to a barbed wire fence along the north side of the pasture and stopped beside it. At that time the animals were about 100 yards from the vehicle. The animals stood for a few minutes as the witnesses alternately continued to watch them through the binoculars. After a few minutes the animals turned and ran under the fence and into the woods.
Mr. Edgin stated the animals were unlike any he had ever seen. He said that one animal was about 5 inches shorter than the other, the larger being about 3 feet tall at the top of its shoulder. Both were about the color of a bobcat, with heads that seemed oversized for the bodies. The head and nose were noticeably more like a canine's than a feline's. According to Mr. Edgin the most noticeable feature on the head was the animals' ears. He stated the ears were unusually large for the size of the head. The ears were reportedly mule-like, about 6 inches long, with tufts of hair growing from their tips. He noted that the neck was also thick and muscular. He stated the animals had tails that were catlike, but longer than a bobcat's and shorter than a cougar's. He particularly noted the tails were rounded on the ends, and not pointed like a dog's.
He said the animals possessed massive chests and very muscular front legs. Their back legs were noticeably shorter, causing the back to be sloped like that of a hyena. When the animals ran, he stated they
“pushed off” using their front legs, landed on all four feet, and continued their travel in that springing fashion.
Mr. Edgin stated that on three other occasions from 1995 to 1997 he saw one of these same mysterious animals. He said that two of those sighting occurred on a tract of land south of the road from Watalua to the junction of Highway 219. On each occasion Mr. Edgin was driving across the open field on that property and had a different passenger each time. Each time the occupants of the vehicle had an unobstructed view of the animal, and it appeared to match in all respects the animals previously seen by Mr. Edgin. During one of those encounters, the passenger saw the animal first and initially thought it was a deer, then decided it was a coyote, and finally decided he could not identify the animal. Mr. Edgin then attempted to run the animal down in the open field with his truck. He stated his truck came within 20 feet of the animal, but he was unable to hit it. After the animal ran away, the passenger was still in awe of what he had seen and quietly told Mr. Edgin,
“There ain't nothing right about that thing.”
During Mr. Edgins' third encounter with one of the unknown animals on the same property, it was standing in the edge of the woods beside the pasture. He and a passenger watched it for about three or four minutes before it walked into the woods.
Mr. Edgin left and came back with a another friend who brought along a gun. They reportedly found the animal's tracks in loose soil and leaves inside a cedar glade. The three men noted that the animals' front paws left tracks that were generally round like a cat's, and were about three inches in diameter. The back feet left similar but smaller tracks. Mr. Edgin stated the tracks were unusual in the fact that the front paw tracks were about 12 to 14 inches apart in the side-to-side direction, while the rear paw tracks were only about half that distance apart in that direction.
Mr. Edgin's last sighting of the animal occurred in 1996 or 1997 when one of the animals crossed Highway 219 in front of his truck just north of I-40.
Mr. Edgin had previously arranged for the writer to meet with other area residents who have also seen animals they could not identify. The writer spent two days interviewing those witnesses.
The close-up encounter that Geraldine Wyers' described was ominous and frightening. Her detailed observations portrayed an aggressive animal that has been similarly described in reports from Montgomery County Arkansas and from LeFlore and McCurtain Counties in Oklahoma.
Ms. Wyers stated that in mid-summer of 1994 or 1995 she drove alone to a small branch below a stock pond dam on the parcel of land on which Mr. Edgin had previously seen two of the animals. She went to the property to destroy a beaver dam on the branch, and to attempt to kill the beavers that had built it.
She said she parked her pickup truck in the edge of a field within about twenty yards of the beaver dam. When she exited the truck, she left the driver's side door open. She stated she destroyed the beaver dam and went back to the truck to get a .22 caliber, semiautomatic rifle which she loaded with ammunition. As she walked upstream away from the truck to find a place to conceal herself and wait for the beavers to return to the dam site, she heard a strange bird-like sound coming from across the branch. As she slowly walked toward the sound, she began to hear loud moaning sounds. She thought the sounds were coming from some kind of animal in great pain. As she slowly and carefully walked toward the sounds they diminished in volume. When she reached a point about 20 yards from the truck, she saw an animal crouched and watching her from the other side of the branch. She was less than 10 yards from the animal at that time. The bizarre and intimidating appearance of the animal reportedly caused her to freeze in fear. She said the animal's description generally matched those given by Mr. Edgin. She stated the animal's head was in fact massive, but it had canine upper teeth that extended two or three inches outside its mouth, and she saw blood on those teeth. She stated she could clearly see the animal was intently watching her and it was poised as if ready to spring in her direction. She had the distinct impression the animal was in no way afraid of her or the rifle. She was carrying the rifle at her hip in both hands and pointing forward. She momentarily considered drawing the gun to her shoulder and emptying the 19 shot magazine of long rifle bullets into the animal, but she quickly decided the animal was too large and too close for her to ensure she could get off enough shots to kill it before it reached her in a full charge.
She began to carefully, and very slowly, walk backwards toward the truck without taking her eyes off the animal. She was moving her feet a few inches at a time, and it seemed to her she would never reach the safety of the truck. When she finally did reach the truck, she stepped beside the opened door and slowly placed her right foot on the floor board. Only then did she briefly take her eyes off the animal to reach for the door handle. She immediately grabbed it, sat down on the seat, drew her left leg inside the cab and slammed the door shut. The second the door closed she heard and felt the animals impact against the outside of the door. She frantically started the engine and raced through the property to the main entrance gate. She opened the gate and hurriedly drove to Mr. Edgin's home, not remembering whether or not she had closed the gate to prevent the cattle from leaving the pasture. She then found the driver's side door was bent from the animal's impact.
The ferocious appearance and lack of fear of humans which Ms. Wyers observed were also noticed by an Ozark businessman who had a close encounter with one of the animals in Johnson County. The man stated he was in his pickup truck and stopped at a highway intersection north of I-40 when one of the animals walked closely past the driver's side of the truck, around the front of the truck and back down the other side. The animal reportedly stopped just past the end of the truck where it was brightly illuminated by the truck's taillights and brake lights where the driver was able to see it in his passenger side mirror. According to the driver the animal remained at the rear of the truck for nearly a minute, but it would turn its body to shield its eyes from the vehicles that were passing on the highway in front of the truck. This particular witness stated he clearly saw both upper and lower canine teeth outside the mouth of the animal. He said the animal's body and head were massive, and the jaws appeared to be wide and powerful. He stated the top of the animal's head was just below the bottom edge of the window openings as it walked past the truck. His description of the animal generally matched those given by Ms. Wyers and Mr. Edgin, although there was one notable exception. This witness estimated the animal's weight to be close to five hundred pounds. The animals seen by the other witnesses were estimated to weigh about 250 pounds. This witness was, by his own admission, very fearful of the animal, even though he was inside his pickup with the windows up during the encounter.
On a spring day about 1991, an animal similar to the ones described by the witnesses was also seen near the Belt Cemetery north of Ozark by two local women. Ruby Tolton and a relative had gone to the cemetery to do clean-up work when they saw a deer run from the woods into an open field behind the cemetery. When the deer reached the center of the field they saw an animal burst from the woods in hot pursuit. The women were very puzzled because they could not identify the obvious predator. They could plainly see that it was not a dog or coyote, although it appeared to be some type of canine, rather than a bobcat or mountain lion.
A similar animal was seen by an employee of a local utility company when it crossed Highway 219 about three miles north of I-40. The witness stated the animal ran across the road toward the creek on the west side. The man stopped his vehicle and got out of the truck to try to get a better look at the animal. He saw it standing and watching him from about 100 yards away, but the man could not identify the animal. As he watched, the animal sped across the creek, and with apparent ease and obvious agility, scaled the steep bluff on the other side and disappeared into the woods above it.
One of the witnesses vividly recalls driving to a local farm with her small children in the 1980s to pick purple hull peas, and being told by the farmer (now deceased) to park close to the pea patch and to watch her children closely. When she asked why, he told her he had recently seen a large, aggressive animal he could not identify near the pea patch. He said the animal was intimidating and showed no fear of him.
In the Cravens area northwest of Ozark the local residents have also reported seeing an enigmatic quadruped animals, although the descriptions of the animals seen in that area are basically the same, the descriptions are significantly different in some respects from those previously recorded.
The most pronounced difference between the descriptions from the two areas is in the length and size of the neck, and the angle of the neck in relation to the body when the animal is standing alert.
Ms. Lucille Elders, her son and another relative who have seen the strange animals in that area at close range report that the animals' necks are disproportional long for the size of the animals' bodies. Ms. Elder's son, who saw one of the animals at night on two occasions, particularly noted that the animal's long neck was held in a very upright, and somewhat awkward looking position when the animal stood watching him. He stated the neck was very thick, and the head was
“fat.” He estimated the top of the animal's head was about 3 feet from the ground when it was watching him.
One resident of the Cravens area reported that the animal he saw had long ears. The animal seen by Ms. Elder was reported to have
“small like ears.”
Anecdotal reports from this area indicate the strange animals have been recently seen by other residents. One rancher reportedly saw such and animal resting on a hay bale in his pasture. According to some residents, these animals have been seen in the area for generations.
Based on the variations in the descriptions of the animals seen in Franklin County, it seems there are either two separate types of enigmatic animals in the area, or there is one species that manifests very unusual changes in its appearance while growing to maturity.
The animals will probably never be accurately identified - or properly classified if they are in fact an unknown species - until their DNA profile has been examined by professionals in that field. While DNA can sometimes be obtained from a wild animal without it being killed, the odds are in this case that one of the animals will be shot by a farmer or rancher, or will be run over and killed while crossing I-40. If such an event occurs, and the animal still can't be identified upon close inspection, the preserved carcass would be of great interest to science and to the world in general.
Tal H. Branco is a life-long resident of Arkansas and an avid outdoorsman. He learned to hunt, track and fish while a child living in the forests of South Arkansas. For over 60 years he has lived in central Arkansas. During part of that time he was trained and employed as a law enforcement officer. He received special training in Crime Scene Investigations and in the Collection and Preservation of Evidence. He was later employed for 23 years as a chemical analyst for an international corporation, and in that capacity established and supervised the operation of 5 laboratories in Brazil, 2 of which were located several hundred miles up the Amazon River. During that employment he spend his spare time hunting and fishing with the local Indians. He has hunted and fished in other countries and in numerous areas of the United States.
He has for the past 9 years served as a consultant and expert witness in an unrelated field. In his spare time he has done professional photography for publication, written Outdoor Sports columns for newspapers and a magazine, and authored a book which was recently published by the National Consumer Law Center in Boston.
He has investigated reports of enigmatic, (unclassified), animals for nearly thirty years, and founded The RFP, (Reclusive Forest Primate), Research Project about 15 years ago to gain help in pursuing those investigations. All of the members of the group are unpaid volunteers, and all have had personal encounters with enigmatic animals.
The primary focus of his research has been on the large, hirsute bipedal primate that is commonly called
“Bigfoot,” or “Sasquatch.” He also writes a column, “The Reclusive Forest Primate Chronicles,” about these animals and their encounters with people in hopes of obtaining information from readers concerning recent sightings so that those sightings can be investigated.
SOURCE: Charleston Express
The author can be contacted by e-mail at: email@example.com or by phone at (501) 352-1159.
CATTLE MUTILATIONS FROM ABOVE
Cattle mutilations are back, but this time there's a really disturbing element: proof that at least one animal was dropped from above.
“The 31st cattle mutilation has been discovered on a Red Bluff, California,
ranch where I visited and collected samples from another mutilation back in
the mid-1990s. One of the mutilated calves even had tree branches wound in
its legs, implying it had dropped from above through the trees - similar to
all those cattle the ranch hand heard and saw drop through trees in Sand
Spring, Oregon, in the 1970s.”
SOURCE: Brief report from Unknowncountry.com Jan. 8-14, Whitley Streiber
Detailed article and pictures at:
TWO NEW LAKES FOUND BENEATH ANTARCTIC ICE
by Staff Writers, New York NY (SPX) Jan 31, 2006
[MODIS satellite image showing location of Sovetskaya Antarctic research station and 90ºE Lake in relation to Lake Vostok: http://www.terradaily.com/images/antarctic-two-new-lakes-modis-bg.jpg]
Lying beneath more than two miles of Antarctic ice, Lake Vostok may be the best-known and largest subglacial lake in the world, but it is not alone down there. Scientists have identified more than 145 other lakes trapped under the ice. Until now, however, none have approached Vostok's size or depth.
In the February 2006 issue of Geophysical Research Letters, scientists from the Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory, a member of The Earth Institute at Columbia University, describe for the first time the size, depth and origin of Vostok's two largest neighbors.
The two ice-bound lakes are referred to as 90ºE and Sovetskaya for the longitude of one and the Russian research station coincidentally built above the other. The scientists' findings also indicate that, as suspected with Lake Vostok, an exotic ecosystem may still be thriving in the icy waters 35 million years after being sealed off from the surface.
Geophysicists Robin Bell and Michael Studinger of Lamont-Doherty combined data from ice-penetrating radar, gravity surveys, satellite images, laser altimetry and records of a Soviet Antarctic Expedition that unknowingly traversed the lakes in 1958-1959. The shorelines of the lakes appeared in satellite images of the region as perturbations in the surface of the East Antarctic ice sheet. In addition, because the ice is effectively floating on the surface of the lakes, the ice sheet exhibits slight depressions over the lakes that appear in radar and laser elevations.
Bell and Studinger, along with colleagues from the University of New Hampshire and NASA, report that the 90ºE Lake has a surface area of 2,000km2, which is about the size of Rhode Island, and is second only to Lake Vostok's 14,000km2 surface area. Sovetskaya Lake was calculated to be about 1,600 km2. Both are sealed beneath more than two miles of ice.
The lake depths, estimated to be at least 900 meters, were calculated from gravity data taken during aerial surveys in 2000 and 2001. Because gravitational force is directly related to mass, a decrease in gravitational pull over the ice sheet corresponds to a decrease in mass beneath the ice.
“Over the lakes, the pull of gravity is much weaker, so we know there must be a big hole down there,” said Bell.
Their depth, along with the fact that they are parallel to each other and Lake Vostok, indicate that the lake system is tectonic in origin, the authors conclude.
Shallow lakes scooped out by glaciers or a meteorite impact can quickly fill with sediment, and thus are short lived. Lakes created by faulted blocks of the Earth's crust, however, are deeper and don't fill in as rapidly. Many of the smaller sub-glacial lakes scientists have identified so far are believed to be shallow
“ephemeral” lakes that were suddenly sealed off by the ice.
The combination of heat from below and a thick layer of insulating ice above keeps the water temperature at the top of 90ºE and Sovetskaya at a balmy –2 degrees Celsius, despite temperatures on the surface that can drop to –80 degrees Celsius in winter. Since the lakes are bounded by faults, Bell said it is likely the lakes receive flows of nutrients that could support unique ecosystems. Moreover, laser mapping of the ice sheet surface by NASA's Ice Cloud and Land Elevation Satellite (ICESat) revealed that this water-ice boundary, or ceiling, is tilted.
“Since the surface is tilted, we know that the ice sheet changes thickness over the lake and that will drive circulation in the lake,” said Bell.
“This will provide mixing and distribute whatever nutrients are in the lake,
which is an important component of subglacial ecosystems.”
This, along with the tectonic origin of the lakes, supports the idea that despite climate changes on the surface over the last 10 million to 35 million years, the volume of the lakes have remained remarkably constant, providing a stable, if inhospitable, environment that may harbor an ancient and alien ecosystem adapted to life beneath the ice sheet. However, just how, when or even whether scientists will risk the possibility of contaminating the lakes to confirm their suspicions remains the subject of an ongoing international debate.
EARTH WARMS UP REGULARLY
Hundreds of thousands of years worth of climate records in ice cores show there is nothing unusual in a global warming trend over the past 25 years.
Marine geophysicist Bob Carter, a professor at Queensland's James Cook University and leading climate change skeptic, said the effects of human activity would barely register in the long-term history of climate change.
“The Weekend Australian” that ice cores from Antarctica “tell us clearly that in the context of the meteorological records of 100 years, it is not unusual to have a period of warming like the one we are in at the moment.” Dr Carter disputed the theory that human activity was making a current - natural - warm period hotter:
“Atmospheric CO2 is not a primary forcing agent for temperature change.” He argues that
“any cumulative human signal is so far undetectable at a global level and, if present, is buried deeply in the noise of natural variation.”
Fellow skeptic William Kininmonth, a former director of the Bureau of Meteorology's National Climate Centre, agreed. He wrote in a 2004 book,
“Climate Change A Natural Hazard,” that there was “every reason to believe that the variability's in global temperature and other climate characteristics experienced over the past century are part of the natural variability of the climate system and are not a consequence of recent anthropogenic activities.” But other leading scientists, who blame human activity for climate change, say the
“denialists” are a one-to-99 minority.
Will Steffen, director of the Centre for Resource and Environmental Studies at the Australian National University, said:
“There is no debate. The debate is over.” The evidence that human activity had increased emissions of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere, adding to natural warming, was
“overwhelming,” he said. For scientist and University of Adelaide academic Tim Flannery there was also no argument: humans had turned up the heating and only humans could keep a lid on it. The argument that human activity did not contribute to global warming was
“not a credible hypothesis to build policy on,” he said.
Filer's Files #4 - January 25, 2006
Hmm! The below article discusses two 3.5 year periods within a seven-year cycle. That sounds familiar, now doesn't it? Other than that I have no idea what the author is talking about. But it does sound like something important to watch during these end-times, now doesn't it?
We are likely headed towards a similar 20 year season of increase in tectonic activity, beginning with a major increase in volcanism during 2006-08 and the occurrence of more 7.0 plus quakes, even as many three per month for many years afterwards.
AND PAG E-NEWS: January 27 www.pagenews.info
Play the video clip. Download it, if possible, and keep it. In the middle you'll see how the aurora seems to spurt out from a certain point. That point seems to correspond to the Radarsat image culled by Rod M. Cluff, so we have some new confirmation.
Link to the clip itself is: http://www.nasa.gov/mov/105423main_FUV_2005-01_v01.mov
Notice, if you scroll the play bar of the video backwards and forwards manually, you can see the aurora's tralis apparently streaming out of the 'polar opening.' Also, the 'opening' itself appears to be moving around the center of rotation. These are all interesting observations. I have links to this and other material available on the blog http://hollowplanet.blogspot.com.
FURTHERMORE, that video clip displays the fact that the aurora originates from the surface (actually, within it) and that it then shoots outwards. This is different than having the auroras originate with the solar winds, in which case it would shoot downwards. Scrutinize it. Download it and save it. -- Dean
SOURCE: ANOMALOUS-IMAGES AND UFO FILES newsgroup
MINING ON MARS
Keith Laney writes,
“In my seasoned opinion some Mars images seem to show what may be or may have been mining on the surface. Officially most of these are referenced as
'Exhumed craters' by MSSS, a naming indicative of a well tuned sense of irony, and a term which I find to be a most revealing and befitting; Exhumed by whom? Who is doing the mining Mars? Perhaps we need to be! The mineral wealth of an entire planet lies before us, wide open to our satellite eyes.”
M0401289 The Coppermine:
When shown with a couple of earthen examples, we can see some fair amount of familiar similarities, the result is pretty striking. Inside the blue box above is what appears to be very intricate structure along the right rim:
In the green box upper right is a pit mine in Nevada, and in the orange box at top left is the stunningly similar Copper pit at Ajo AZ. See http://www.keithlaney.net/ for more details.
SOURCE: Filer's Files #2 - January 11, 2006
George A. Filer, Majorstar@aol.com
MARS SYMBOLS AND PYRAMIDS
Let us accomplish some deductive reasoning. Cairo happens to mean Mars in Egyptian, and we learn that part of pyramids were painted red, symbolizing the planet Mars. I visited the Great Pyramid of Cheops and the Cairo Museum and came away with the feeling the Great Pyramid could not be built today with modern engineering, much less 3000 years ago.
Besides the 3 million multi ton blocks of stone used to build the structure, it is set upon a tremendous solid base. Upon entering the pyramid there is a tremendous ascending hallway of thirty ton granite blocks set upon one another.
This is the Grand Gallery with an ascending stairway and polished walls rising 28 feet high. The Great Pyramid is bare of symbols or writing anywhere, unlike all the burial crypts of the Pharaohs. Instead we are in a building that seems to be designed as a bomb shelter or to deflect incoming meteoroid impacts. On Mars we find similar pyramid shaped structures.
NASA/JPL photo D&M Pyramid:
We can speculate that intelligent inhabitants of Mars used the pyramids for protection, and brought this technology to Earth when they realized the end was near. Admittedly, this argument is weak, but subscribe to these files and you may be surprised by the evidence we are collecting that may convince you.
SOURCE: Filer's Files #3 - January 18, 2006
MARS HAS SEASONS
Norman Bryden writes,
“I think many people have seen evidence of extraterrestrial life and the great astronomer Percival Lowell was right about the seasons on Mars, and those seasons have been photographed repeatedly. There are what look like canals also.” NASA management chooses to ignore the seasons or anything that has to do with extraterrestrial life. Some of the most compelling evidence I have come across is the testimonies of the more than 450 government and military officials of the Disclosure Project. Among the testimonies is Karl Wolf who Edgar Mitchell recommended to come forward about what he knows. Karl witnessed high resolution photographs of many huge structures on the back side of the Moon.
According to the testimony, on the back side of the Moon are huge towers, buildings more than a half mile in size, radar dish shaped buildings, spherical buildings and what look like huge power plants and more. http://www.disclosureproject.org/
The green in the image from Valles Marineris seems to be where you would expect water and nutrients to collect to feed plant life. In some regions the blanket of green is so thick and the rough terrain is so well covered, words like 'Amazon' 'Oasis' and 'Jungles' come to mind.
In the lower regions of images from Mars are what look like blue ponds, rivers and lakes. Life is so tenacious that I believe Mars is a living planet, looking at all the evidence and taking it all into consideration. Thanks to Norman Bryden
SOURCE: Filer's Files #4 - January 25, 2006
MARS VEGETATION AND CIVILIZATION
Mars has many places where structures and roads can be seen. They don't look like any vine, river, dried mud or lava flows. There are many openings and sort to accommodate another mobile intelligent species.
The greenery on Mars and the abundance of water and weather would support an atmosphere. I believe there is an atmosphere on Mars. There are many openings where a species could enter and leave through to interact with the planet surface and the surface has been greatly modified.
Good luck with the images and take care. I will send more when I can. Thanks to Norman Bryden
MARS MGS IMAGE: HIVE DWELLINGS AND ROAD NETWORK *PIC*
SOURCE: Filer's Files #4 - January 25, 2006
SKEPTICISM GREETS CLAIM OF POSSIBLE ALIEN MICROBES
Special to World Science Jan. 5, 2006
Particles at about 1000 times actual size (courtesy Godfrey Louis):
Shaded area represents the state of Kerala in India. (Courtesy Nichalp):
A paper to appear in a scientific journal claims a strange red rain might have dumped microbes from space onto Earth four years ago. But the report is meeting with a shower of skepticism from scientists who say extraordinary claims require extraordinary proof—and this one hasn’t got it. The scientists agree on two points, though. The things look like cells, at least superficially. And no one is sure what they are.
“These particles have much similarity with biological cells though they are devoid of DNA,” wrote Godfrey Louis and A. Santhosh Kumar of Mahatma Gandhi University in Kottayam, India, in the controversial paper.
“Are these cell-like particles a kind of alternate life from space?”
The mystery began when the scarlet showers containing the red specks hit parts of India in 2001. Researchers said the particles might be dust or a fungus, but it remained unclear.
The new paper includes a chemical analysis of the particles, a description of their appearance under microscopes and a survey of where they fell. It assesses various explanations for them and concludes that the specks, which vaguely resemble red blood cells, might have come from a meteor.
A peer-reviewed research journal, Astrophysics and Space Science, has agreed to publish the paper. The journal sometimes publishes unconventional findings, but rarely if ever ventures into generally acknowledged fringe science such as claims of extraterrestrial visitors.
If the particles do represent alien life forms, said Louis and Kumar, this would fit with a longstanding theory called panspermia, which holds that life forms could travel around the universe inside comets and meteors.
These rocky objects would thus
“act as vehicles for spreading life in the universe,” they added. They posted the paper online this week on a database where astronomers often post research papers.
Louis and Kumar have previously posted other, unpublished papers saying the particles can grow if placed in extreme heat, and reproduce. But the Astrophysics and Space Science paper doesn’t include these claims. It mostly limits itself to arguing for the particles’ meteoric origin, citing newspaper reports that a meteor broke up in the atmosphere hours before the red rain.
John Dyson, managing editor of Astrophysics and Space Science, confirmed it has accepted the paper. But he said he hasn’t read it because his co-managing editor, the European Space Agency’s Willem Wamsteker, handled it. Wamsteker died several weeks ago at age 63.
A paper’s publication in a peer-reviewed journal is generally thought to give it some stamp of scientific seriousness, because scientists vet the findings in the process. Nonetheless, the red rain paper provoked disbelief.
“I really, really don’t think they are from a meteor!” wrote Harvard University biologist Jack Szostak of the particles, in an email. And this isn’t the first report of red rain of biological origin, Szostak wrote, though it seems to be the most detailed.
Szostak said the chemical tests the researchers employed aren’t very sensitive. The so-called cells are admittedly
“weird,” he added, saying he would ask his microbiologist friends what they think they are.
“I don’t have an obvious explanation,” agreed prominent origins-of-life researcher David Deamer of the University of California Santa Cruz, in an email. They
“look like real cells, but with a very thick cell wall. But the leap to an
extraterrestrial form of life delivered to Earth must surely be the least
A range of additional tests is needed, he added. Louis agreed:
“There remains much to be studied,” he wrote in an email.
The researchers didn’t dispute the panspermia theory itself, which has a substantial scientific following.
“Panspermia may well be possible,” wrote Lynn J. Rothschild of the NASA Ames Research Center in Moffett Field, Calif., in an email.
“I’m just not so sure that this is a case of it.”
Others viewed the study more favorably.
“I think more careful examination of the red rain material is needed, but so far there seems to be a strong prima facie [first-glance] case to suggest that this may be correct,” said Chandra Wickramasinghe, director of the Cardiff Centre for Astrobiology at Cardiff University, U.K., and a leading advocate of panspermia.
The story of the specks began on July 25, 2001, when residents of Kerala, a state in southwestern India, started seeing scarlet rain in some areas.
“Almost the entire state, except for two northern districts, have reported these unusual rains over the past week,” the BBC online reported on July 30.
“Experts said the most likely reason was the presence of dust in the
atmosphere which colors the water.”
The explanation didn’t satisfy everyone.
“is eluding explanations as the days go by,” the newspaper Indian Express reported online a week later. The article said the Centre for Earth Science Studies, based in Thiruvananthapuram, India, had discarded an initial hypothesis that a streaking meteor triggered the rain, in favor of the view that the particles were spores from a fungus.
“the exact species is yet to be identified. [And] how such a large quantity of spores could appear over a small region is as yet unknown,” the paper quoted center director M. Baba as saying. Baba didn’t return an email from World Science this week.
The red rain continued to appear sporadically for about two months, though most of it fell in the first 10 days, Louis and Kumar wrote. The
“striking red coloration” turned out to come from microscopic, mixed-in red particles, they added, which had
“no similarity with usual desert dust.”
At least 50,000 kg (55 tons) of the particles have fallen in all, they estimated.
“An analysis of this strange phenomenon further shows that the conventional atmospheric transport processes like dust storms etc. cannot explain” it.
“The red particles were uniformly dispersed in the rainwater,” they wrote.
“When the red rainwater was collected and kept for several hours in a
vessel, the suspended particles have a tendency to settle to the bottom.”
“The red rain occurred in many places during a continuing normal rain,” the paper continued.
“It was reported from a few places that people on the streets found their
cloths stained by red raindrops. In a few places the concentration of
particles were so great that the rainwater appeared almost like blood.”
The precipitation, the researchers added, had a
“highly localized appearance. It usually occur[ed] over an area of less than a square kilometer to a few square kilometers. Many times it had a sharp boundary, which means while it was raining strongly red at a place a few meters away there were no red rain.” A typical red rain lasted from a few minutes to less than about 20 minutes, they added.
The scientists compiled charts of where and when the showers occurred based on local newspaper reports.
The particles look like one-celled organisms and are about 4 to 10 thousandths of a millimeter wide, the researchers wrote, somewhat larger than typical bacteria.
“Under low magnification the particles look like smooth, red colored glass beads. Under high magnifications (1000x) their differences in size and shape can be seen,” they wrote.
“Shapes vary from spherical to ellipsoid and slightly elongated… These cell-like particles have a thick and colored cell envelope, which can be well identified under the microscope.” A few had broken cell envelopes, they added.
The particles seem to lack a nucleus, the core DNA-containing compartment that animal and plant cells have, the researchers wrote. Chemical tests indicated they also lacked DNA, the gene-carrying molecule that most types of cells contain.
Nonetheless, Louis and Kumar wrote that the particles show
“fine-structured membranes” under magnification, like normal cells.
The outer envelope seems to contain an
“inner capsule,” they added, which in some places “appears to be detached
from the outer wall to form an empty region inside the cell. Further, there
appears to be a faintly visible mucus layer present on the outer side of the
“One characteristic feature is the inward depression of the spherical surface to form cup like structures giving a squeezed appearance,” which varies among particles, they added.
“The major constituents of the red particles are carbon and oxygen,” they wrote. Carbon is the key component of life on Earth.
“Silicon is most prominent among the minor constituents” of the particles, Louis and Kumar added; other elements found were iron, sodium, aluminum and chlorine.
“The red rain started in the State during a period of normal rain, which indicate that the red particles are not something which accumulated in the atmosphere during a dry period and washed down on a first rain,” the pair wrote.
“Vessels kept in open space also collected red rain. Thus it is not something that is washed out from rooftops or tree leaves. Considering the huge quantity of red particles fallen over a wide geographic area, it is impossible to imagine that these are some pollen or fungal spores which have originated from trees,” they added.
“The nature of the red particles rules out the possibility that these are dust particles from a distant desert source,” they wrote, and such particles
“are not found in Kerala or nearby place.”
One easy assumption is that they
“got airlifted from a distant source on Earth by some wind system,” they added, but this leaves several puzzles.
“One characteristic of each red rain case is its highly localized appearance. If particles originate from distant desert source then why [was] there were no mixing and thinning out of the particle collection during transport” ? they wrote.
“It is possible to explain this by assuming the meteoric origin of the red particles. The red rain phenomenon first started in Kerala after a meteor airburst event, which occurred on 25th July 2001 near Changanacherry in [the] Kottayam district. This meteor airburst is evidenced by the sonic boom experienced by several people during early morning of that day.
“The first case of red rain occurred in this area few hours after the airburst... This points to a possible link between the meteor and red rain. If particle clouds are created in the atmosphere by the fragmentation and disintegration of a special kind of fragile cometary meteor that presumably contain[s] a dense collection of red particles, then clouds of such particles can mix with the rain clouds to cause red rain,” they wrote.
The pair proposed that while approaching Earth at low angle, the meteor traveled southeast above Kerala with a final airburst above the Kottayam district.
“During its travel in the atmosphere it must have released several small
fragments, which caused the deposition of cell clusters in the atmosphere.”
Alive or dead, the particles have some staying power, if the paper is correct.
“Even after storage in the original rainwater at room temperature without
any preservative for about four years, no decay or discoloration of the
particles could be found.”
Electromagnetic weapons operate at the speed of light; they can kill, torture and enslave; but the public is largely unaware that they exist, because these weapons operate by stealth and leave no physical evidence. Electromagnetic weapons have been tested on human beings since 1976. By widely dispersing the involuntary human test-subjects, and vehemently attacking their credibility, it has been possible for the United States to proceed with these human experiments unhindered by discussions or criticisms, let alone opposition. This ultimate weapon system is currently being deployed in Iraq. The US Air Force and the Marine Corps refer to it as
“active denial technology” , as if it were used purely for defense, but it is not....
SOURCE: Article continues at The Institute of Science in Society
CHINA TO BUILD 'ARTIFICIAL SUN' ENERGY DEVICE
Angola Press 1-23-6
HEFEI - A full superconducting experimental Tokamak fusion device, which aims to generate infinite, clean nuclear-fusion-based energy, will be built in March or April in Hefei, capital city of east China's Anhui Province.
Experiments with the advanced new device will start in July or August. If the experiments prove successful, China will become the first country in the world to build a full superconducting experimental Tokamak fusion device, nicknamed
“artificial sun” , experts here said.
The project, dubbed EAST (experimental advanced superconducting Tokamak), is being undertaken by the Hefei-based Institute of Plasma Physics under the Chinese Academy of Sciences. It will require a total investment of nearly 300 million yuan (37 million U.S. dollars), only one fifteenth to one twentieth the cost of similar devices being developed in the other parts of the world.
Full story at http://rense.com/general69/enn.htm
CHINA OVERTAKES CANADA IN OUTER SPACE SEARCH FOR ALIENS
By Judi McLeod
January 2, 2006
The Peoples Republic of China will give
“life-on-other-planet” Canadians a run for their money on pushing the UFO agenda in 2006.
Canada already has a welcoming committee at the ready to establish diplomacy with
“ethical Off-Planet cultures now visiting earth.”
Since 1964, Canada has been home to the world’s first UFO landing pad in St. Paul, Alberta, a 130-ton concrete structure built as that city’s Centennial project.
Boasted to be among the famed visitors who dropped by to see the UFO landing pad by its promoters were Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth and Mother Teresa.
The Canadian Exopolitics Initiative, presented by NGOs to a Senate Committee panel hearing in Winnipeg on March 10, 2005, proposes that the Government of Canada undertake a `Decade of Contact’ with extraterrestrials.
The proposed document is
“a 10-year process of formal, funded public education, scientific research,
educational curricula development and implementation, strategic planning,
community activity and public research concerning our terrestrial society’s
full culture, political, social, legal and governmental communication and
public interest diplomacy, with advanced, ethical Off-Planet cultures now
If the idea of ETs already visiting earth is a mind stretch for some, the Decade of Contact initiative is supported by former Canadian Minister of Defense Paul Hellyer, among others.
In 1938, an Orson Wells radio program claimed that a real time alien invasion was in progress.
Now that they’ve got the money, China may get to ETs before Canada ever does.
“Government officials in Guiyang, capital of Guizhou Province, announced on Tuesday that they had received $20 million from a Taiwan-based company to build a UFO research facility in China.” (TCV News, Dec. 11, 2005).
According to TCV News’ Jim Kouri, the project is a result of several people in the city’s Baiyun District claiming they were visited by extraterrestrials in 1994. With the new research facility, scientists hope to reproduce the mysterious moment through photos and historical documentation.
“In 1994, more than 27 pine trees in a forest farm in the district mysteriously fell down. However, nearby plastic shelters stood intact.
“A nearby motor vehicle factory reported similar unexplained events: steel pipes were strangely broken; a huge truck was found more than 20 meters away from its original place; and a factory employee claims he was mysteriously pulled up in the air by an
While some chalk up the mysterious events to ET, scientists stated after a field trip to the locations that thunder, lightning and tornadoes were the probable cause.
Wang Fangchen, a biologist who visited the site right after the event, said the city’s plan to build a UFO research base is
“Where do they recruit scientists for the research?” he asked, before adding:
“I won’t oppose it if they just want to promote local tourism through the
Zhou Xiaoqiang, a secretary-general with the Beijing UFO Research Association, said,
“People often mistake planes, clouds and insects, as well as strange shadows on photographs, as being UFOs.
“If aliens came, they would more likely appear before our eyes politely than hide themselves, said Xiaoaqing.
On Sept. 22, 2005, Prime Minister Paul Martin declared to the UN General Assembly,
“Space is our final frontier. It has always captured our imagination. What a
tragedy it would be if space became one big weapons arsenal and the scene of
a new arms race.”
Martin stated, “In 1967, the UN agreed
that weapons of mass destruction must not be based in space. The time has
come to extend this ban to all weapons…”
Meanwhile, the same US detractors, who argue that there never were Weapons of Mass Destruction in Iraq, worry about the possibility of stockpiling WMD in outer space.
- - - - - -
Canada Free Press founding editor Judi McLeod is an award-winning journalist with 30 years experience in the media. A former Toronto Sun and Kingston Whig Standard columnist, she has also appeared on Newsmax.com, the Drudge Report, Foxnews.com, and World Net Daily. Judi can be reached at: firstname.lastname@example.org.
HUBBLE PHOTO OF UFO ARTIFACT
John C Craig writes,
“I downloaded a very nice picture of the Orion Nebula as imaged by the Hubble space telescope and noticed a strange and fascinating artifact when I zoomed in to the full resolution. I will attach two pictures for you to review.
Hubble Telescope of Orion Nebula
One is of the full picture, although it has been shrunk down immensely from the original, and the other is a small part of the original picture showing the artifact. To see this artifact with maximum resolution, as shown in the picture I provided, it is best to download the full size image from the Hubble gallery.
That picture is 18,000 by 18,000 pixels, and the JPG version of it is almost 24 Mb in size. The artifact is in the center, so it's noticeable as you zoom the picture towards its full size. The edges of the roughly cylindrical object appear to be sharp. My guess is that it's a hole in the gases, swept out by some object or phenomenon of immense size, or perhaps it's a huge, dense, but clearly delineated dust cloud. Even if it were a solid object in the vicinity of our solar system it would be huge. The artifact is not vertical or horizontal, which would tend to rule out glitches in the Hubble equipment. To me it does appear to be a real part of the scene.
Thanks to John C Craig
Editor's Note: I was unable to download such a large TIFF file. Notice the similarity of the Hubble image and George Adamski's March 5, 1951, telescopic photo of an alleged Mother Spaceship releasing Scouts over Mt. Palomar, California.
SOURCE: Filer's Files #3 - January 18, 2006
MYSTICISM AND UFO SIGHTINGS
A series of UFO sightings on Tenerife, in the Canary Isles, has UFO investigators scratching their heads and wondering if the Islands’ history holds clues to the current spate of activity. In the last 18 months, at least three different disc shaped UFO’s have been photographed on this small Island off the coast of Africa.
Many in the UFO community will remember Tenerife from the high profile arrests in the late 90’s involving members of what authorities claimed was a semi mystic UFO group. It was falsely claimed that the group went by the names Centro Sagrado de Isis (Sacred Centre of Isis) and Orden del Santuario Solar (Order of the Solar Shrine).
The group was lead by German psychologist Dr. Heide Fittkau-Garthe, a divorcee in her late 50’s who had no previous involvement with cults but who had studied eastern mysticism in some depth and through that study seems to have become interested in communication with extraterrestrial life forms and their ability to visit Earth.
According to official reports, the group had allegedly been planning a trip to the summit of Tenerife’s Mount Teide, where they planned to make contact with a visiting spacecraft.
If the planned meeting with extraterrestrial visitors failed, police claimed that a suicide pact had been drawn up along the lines of that undertaken by the infamous Heavens Gate cult. It was an easy parallel to draw and one that would ensure public opinion was hostile towards the group’s leader. The police claimed that the group’s 32 members had been brainwashed by the psychologist and used this to explain why none of them would confirm their suspicions or implicate Dr. Fittkau-Garthe in any wrongdoing ...
SOURCE: Article with images continued at
Text source at: Conspiracy Journal 1/27/06 #350
EXPLODING OBJECT 40 MILES SE OF SONORA CALIFORNIA
Amazing Video Footage
Brian Vike, Director, HBCC UFO Research
Date: January 18th, 2006
Time: Noticed first at 5:22pm and lasted till about 5:42pm
At approximately 5:02pm (PST) I went into the backyard to see why my dog was barking. While I was out there I did my general habit of scanning the skies for anything out of the unusual. A few clouds in the background along with mostly blue skies and nothing else. I decided to rake some leaves as we had had a storm blow thru and knock off the last of them. At about 5:22pm I had finished and again glanced around the skies.
This time there was what I thought was either a very bright star or perhaps even Venus in the Southern region. I thought this rather strange as I would've thought that nothing could be seen yet as the Sun was just starting to set. I observed this object for a good 3 or 4 minutes and it didn't appear to be moving which just increased my curiosity. I decided to retrieve my binoculars and get perhaps a closer look of this bright star or planet.
A few minutes later I'm zeroing in on this bright object and could tell right off that this wasn't a star or planet as I've observed both from the same vantage point and this object was much to big to be either.
Since I had a teleconversion lens already attached to my camcorder I decided to tape a bit of it as one never knows. After a few more minutes I had my tripod set up and zoomed in on the object. I was able to use a normal viewing mode with no need to use nitevision as there was still more than enough available ambient light. Then I noticed something peculiar.
At the bottom of this big bright luminous object, another smaller object possibly 1/15th (or smaller) the size appeared below the larger object. I immediately started recording and continued taping for the continuation of this event. The sun had set and I wondered if by switching to
“NiteVision” mode would reveal even more. It was then that I saw what I thought was another object come out of the smaller object and start traveling upward above both the smaller and larger object. In retrospect, I now believe that what I thought was another object was in fact the middle star in
“Orions Belt” that was hidden by both objects.
But not knowing this at the time, I actually thought that I might have encountered a craft moving away from the larger object and so followed it for several minutes. The larger object was probably somewhere between 95-110 degrees arc in the southern sky and was very slowly moving towards the west, meanwhile what I thought was another craft was moving steadily upward.
I decided to zoom back a bit and include the larger object along with the other upwardly moving object. Within about one minute of my doing so, the larger object explodes (or possibly implodes) and tumbles back to the earth with a shower of debris and smoke. I followed the tumbling pieces for another minute or so until I was not able see any more of it.
Included is a Digitally Processed frame that shows both the large and small object and a small graphic showing the POV (Point of View) of the cameraperson and where Orion's belt was at the time.
I should point out that my cameras clock is exactly one hour fast on the video as I've not changed it yet. I also shorten segments of the 6 minutes or so of footage to show the object first in daylight and then later with
“NiteVision” so as to have a point of reference for the viewer.
Location: 40 Miles SouthEast of Sonora California
Date of Event: January 18th, 2006
Time of Event: Noticed first at 5:22pm and lasted till about 5:42pm
Number of Witnesses: 2 (Myself and my dog)
Duration of Event: About 20 minutes including being first noticed by the naked eye
Type of Object: Unknown, extremely bright white and luminous
Size of Object: Had to be quite large for the amount of debris and compared to a star
15 times smaller
Shape of Object: Spheroid/Round
Approximately 17 minutes later as I was arriving for a dinner get-together, I observed a glowing luminous spheroid rapidly moving (perhaps three times as fast as a commercial airliner) to the NorthEast and was able capture 'free-hand' with a camcorder about a minute of it which I will send you within the next day. But its rather anti-climatic compared to this event...
Interesting side-note is that in our neck of the woods several researchers and myself were just commenting on how nothing has happen in the hills or the foothills of California for over a month and a half.
UFORA Member Johnny Anonymous
Report, photos and footage are © 2006 Johnny Anonymous.
Video clip Exploding Object 40 Miles SouthEast Of Sonora California - Video Footage
Brian Vike, Director , HBCC UFO Research
Home - Phone 250 845 2189
HBCC UFO RESEARCH Newsletter At:
SOURCE: http://www.rense.com/general69/hhvd.htm ;
UFO Casebook: 1-23-06 http://www.ufocasebook.com/012306.html
CHEMTRAILS AND ALUMINUM HARM HEART, LUNGS AND PLANTS
By Ted Twietmeyer 1-13-6
Chemtrails which are known to contain heavy metals such as barium oxide and aluminum oxide, are known to be a bigger problem than once thought. Others have researched chemtrails at great length, but may not have known about the negative effects on ecology, the environment and human beings which have recently been discovered. This essay is meant to create awareness, not panic.
Have you ever been standing at a gas station pump, waiting for your vehicle to fill up out in the country in what you thought was clean, fresh air? Did you also notice the top surface of the pump housing may have been covered with rough grey dust? Much of that material can be from chemtrail fallout from aluminum and barium oxide. What goes up, must come down. And all of us are breathing it. Sickness almost always visits communities within a 1-3 days after the spraying has taken place. Headaches, coughs that won't go away, sore throats and head and upper chest congestion are not uncommon. Your body does not want this metal embedding itself in your respiratory tract. It becomes an irritant.
Recent research shows that aluminum oxide which is a heavy metal, can do far more damage to human beings than once thought. The metal can also affect plants, and is far more insidious than once thought.
EFFECTS OF ALUMINUM OXIDE ON HEART AND LUNGS
A paper written by Wardle, Lee, Akester and Braithwaite at Thiokol Corp. warns of hazards from aluminum oxide nanoparticles. In their paper they express concern that epidemiological studies suggest an association between inhaled ambient particulate material and adverse cardiopulmonary (heart and lungs) effects. The mechanisms related to this toxicity are still unclear. Their paper shows methods to control ultra-fine particles, to limit inhaled nanoparticles in humans.
EFFECTS OF ALUMINUM ON ECOLOGY
Is the government silent about the negative effects of aluminum? From the EPA website we read the following about acid effects and aluminum. The 22 page paper contains numerous references to scientific papers which are available at the EPA website:
“Acid deposition can occur in the wet or dry form and can adversely affect
aquatic resources through the acidification of water bodies and watersheds.
Acidification of aquatic ecosystems is of primary concern because of the
adverse effects of low pH and associated high aluminum concentrations on
fish and other aquatic organisms.”
“Aluminum which can
be toxic to organisms, is soluble at low pH and is leached from watershed
soils by acidic deposition. Acidification may affect fish in several ways.
The direct physiological effects of low pH and high aluminum include
increased fish mortality, decreased growth, and decreased reproductive
potential. The mechanism of toxicity involves impaired ion regulation at the
gill. Population losses occur frequently because of recruitment failure,
specifically due to increased mortality of early life stages. Changes at
other trophic levels may affect fish populations by altering food
“By combining information on relevant water chemistry parameters (pH, aluminum, calcium), fish toxicity models, and historical and current distributions of fish populations in the lakes and streams included dominant source of acidity in 100 percent of the acidic lakes studied. This is in stark contrast to the West region, where none of the acidic lakes studied were dominated by acid deposition (notably, the sample size of lakes for this region was small to begin with).
For acidic streams, the Mid-Atlantic Highland region contains the greatest
proportion of streams whose acidic inputs are dominated by acid deposition
(56 percent). This contrasts with acidic streams of Florida, where the vast
majority (79 percent) are acidic primarily due to organic acids, rather than
acid deposition. By combining information on relevant water chemistry
parameters (pH, aluminum, calcium), fish toxicity models, and historical and
current distributions of fish populations in the lakes and streams included
in the National Surface Water Survey (NSWS), NAPAP investigators estimated
the proportion of water bodies with water chemistry conditions that are
unsuitable for survival of various fish species.” 
TRANSLATION: Aluminum causes problems with fish by interfering with the
ability of gills to take oxygen from water. The aluminum works with acidic
water to create a toxic environment for wildlife in lakes and streams.
Aluminum is connected with ecological damage. And who is spraying the aluminum oxide everywhere at high altitude? The government themselves. This is clearly another case of the left hand doesn't know what the right hand is doing...or perhaps it may not want to.
Other household products contain aluminum oxide such as sandpaper and other abrasives. Billions of nanoparticles are likely to be released when using sandpaper, which until now has been thought to be almost harmless. The problem would be worse when an electric sander is in use. Most people have been wearing a mask when sanding to avoid inhaling wood dust. Now we can see that the wood dust may be the least of our problems. And when sanding is done, there are countless particles of aluminum dust suspended in the air for hours, and all around the area on surfaces where sanding was taking place. Consider how the metal impairs ion regulation in the gills of fish - what harm will aluminum dust do deep in our lungs where there is also a thin blood-oxygen membrane?
EFFECTS ON PLANT GROWTH
Researchers at the New Jersey Institute of Technology have demonstrated that plants can be harmed by nanoparticles. Professor Daniel Watts (a toxicology expert) and a post-doc Ling Yang performed research, and reported that aluminum oxide nanoparticles in ground water inhibited the growth of corn, cucumbers, cabbage, carrots and soybeans. Watts warned that care must taken to prevent dispersion into the air, where they will be carried by rain into groundwater systems and stunt plant growth. Silicon dioxide (otherwise known as sand) had no effect on plant health.
According to Watts,
“There was an assumption that nanoparticles had no effects on plants. But we have shown that seedlings can interact with nanoparticles such as aluminum oxide., and that they can have a harmful effect on seedlings and perhaps stunt the growth of plants.” Watts and his post-doc grew seedlings in Petri dishes, using water with aluminum oxide nanoparticles. After just seven days the effects of stunted growth were measurable. 
Could aluminum also affect human fetus development via the bloodstream? We do not yet have conclusive data on this. But nanoparticles are used for scratch resistance coatings and sunscreen lotions. Ironically, the Aluminum oxide is also used as environmental catalysts used for remediating polluted soil. Exhaust systems, chimneys or smoke stacks can mix with rainwater and snow to gradually and irreversible pollute groundwater and soil. 
Oppenheimer wrote a paper many years ago how barium oxide and aluminum oxide could be dispersed at very high altitude to reflect the sun's heat back into space, would stay suspended for some period of time. But what if he was wrong? What if chemtrail spraying is the real source of the
“greenhouse effect?” Is it merely a coincidence that since this aggressive world-wide spraying program began, that the poles are melting and winters are growing warmer than ever before?
Perhaps the true objective all along was to warm up the earth, and not cool it.
-- Ted Twietmeyer, www.data4science.net
NOTE: Typos inside quoted remarks have been left unchanged, and are also present in the original document.
 Heart and lung risk factors (cardiopulmonary) See *AA1.2 on this webpage:
 Electronic Engineering Times December 5, 2005 Issue
THE CHEMTRAIL SMOKING GUN:
PROOF OF GLOBAL GEOENGINEERING PROJECTS
by Bruce Conway / revised 6.20.03 / Lightwatcher Publishing
Foreword: For the past few years investigators and researchers have been searching for hard evidence on the elusive phenomena of chemtrail spraying. If one searches GoogleNews for articles on chemtrails in (with 4500 periodicals represented) not one article will be found. There is simply no coverage on this topic in the mainstream media.
Imagine our surprise when we discovered extensive proof of government involvement, funding, sponsorship, multidisciplinary research, policy making and implementation of global atmospheric modification under the classification of 'Geoengineering.' This is the chemtrail smoking gun we have been looking for.
Authorized by Congress and sponsored by the National Academy of Sciences, a monumental and in-depth study on global warming and possible corrective measures (mitigations) was undertaken in the early 1990s. Represented were senior researchers, faculty, theoreticians, atmospheric scientists, department heads and CEO's from a multitude of prestigious institutions. The Smithsonian, Harvard, General Motors, Cambridge, MIT, Yale, World Resources Institute, National Center for Atmospheric Research, the Secretary General of the United Nations, Oxford, Brookings Institution, Columbia University, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Carnegie-Mellon University, Princeton University, Brown University, Lawrence Livermore Laboratory, and many more. This colossal study recalls the scope, expense and secrecy of the Manhattan Project, yet the goals and eventual impacts of it are far greater.
- - - - - - - - - - - -
The Chemtrail Smoking Gun: Proof of global atmospheric geoengineering
by Bruce Conway
“There are more things in heaven and Earth, Horatio, than are dreamt in your philosophy.” - Shakespeare
Five years ago I founded the Chemtrails Hall of Shame web site to document and investigate the elusive Chemtrail spraying operations in the skies above my home in the Pacific NW. The site can be found at: http://www.lightwatcher.com
During this time I have had the opportunity to work with and befriend several of the luminaries within this field of investigation: Diane Harvey, Brian Holmes and a very special investigator who chooses to remain anonymous in this article. Each of these individuals has contributed greatly to the subject, keeping this topic alive within the alternative media. These chemtrail spraying programs, which are apparently being conducted on a worldwide basis, are evident to anyone who has the desire to look up and perceive the evidence. Yet, definitive proof has remained elusive.
Total denial by governmental authorities, the shunning of this topic by mainstream media, the systematic discrediting of researchers, ongoing cover-ups by the scientific establishment, and a coordinated systematic policy of disinformation has relegated this topic to the realm of fantasy and paranoid delusion. Regardless, it continues to go on above our heads, and has now grown to become the largest coordinated global engineering project in the history of our species. How can I make such a preposterous claim?
Brian Holmes of www.holmestead.ca has investigated these eco-crimes for the past several years. Because of his efforts, many within Canada and on the net have become aware of the ongoing spraying operations. Like other serious investigators who have studied this phenomena, Brian's work has been maligned, and there are ongoing attempts to discredit him and his sources.
Some months ago, a Chemtrail insider that Brian nicknamed 'Deep Shield' came forward with specific and detailed information about this mysterious program, corresponding with him via e-mail. A transcript of the communications with Deep Shield and the Shield Project can be read online at: http://www.holmestead.ca/chemtrails/shieldproject.html. For those of us who have studied chemtrails carefully, the revealing dialog rang of the truth.
Since then we have been able to study, and verify a number of Deep Shield's primary claims. The anonymous insider gave Brian's readers some valuable clues to follow if they wished to investigate deeper into the history and hard science of chemtrails. A primary clue was to investigate the term 'geoengineering.'
One investigator took the clues provided by 'Deep Shield' and dug in. She eventually found an N.A.S. study on Geoengineering and the Mitigation of Global Warming. This study is still available online and is also available in hardcover. This massive document validates the insider information provided by Deep Shield, and has lead to an additional gold mine of evidence.
This massive research study is entitled:
Policy Implications of Greenhouse Warming: Mitigation, Adaptation, and the Science Base - Panel on Policy Implications of Greenhouse Warming, sponsored by the National Academy of Sciences, National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine.
The results were presented in 1992 and published in book form in 2000 by the National Academy Press. This 994 page study is the textbook on greenhouse gasses, global warming, policy decisions and mitigation's (corrective measures). Included within is the hard science many chemtrails researchers have been searching for: the scientists, agencies, institutions and corporations involved, cost factors, chemical formula, mathematical modeling, delivery methods, policies, recruiting of foreign governments, acquisition of materials, and the manufacturing of aerosol compounds, etc.
This entire volume can presently be read online at: http://books.nap.edu/books/0309043867/html/index.html. Keep in mind that this study is only the tip of the iceberg. Literally hundreds of papers on related topics have been published in scientific journals. We don't expect this featured study to remain online for long once the cat is out of the bag. So do check it out soon.
The full involvement of foremost government agencies, research firms, universities and private corporations are detailed in this global 'geoengineering' study. Keep in mind that this was approved by and funded by Congress. We expect that this documentation will bolster the beliefs of most hardcore chemtrail believers. It will also continue to undermining what little trust still remains in our leaders and their institutions. This documentation proves that they have lied repeatedly about their involvement and the existence of chemtrail spraying programs.
It also appears that we 'Chemtrail' investigators have been chasing our tails, being intentionally discredited, maligned, and fed disinformation to keep the actual truth just below the levels of media perception. The real story has been taking place in broad daylight, safely concealed under the scientific umbrella of 'Geoengineering and intentional climate change.'
Chemtrails are just one of the 'mitigations' proposed to Geoengineering our planet. Once we began sifting through the numerous studies, experiments and papers written on intentional climate change, we found a wealth of supporting evidence of well funded global atmospheric modification programs. One such paper is Geoengineering: A Climate Change Manhattan Project http://www.metatronics.net/lit/geo2.html#two (Jay Michaelson, published in the Stanford Environmental Law Journal, January, 1998).
The author makes a very convincing case for the pressing need of undertaking geoengineering projects. He argues that regulation, environmental laws and other stumbling blocks limit our ability to directly address the dangers that threaten us directly and immediately. He writes:
“The projected insufficiency of Kyoto's emission reduction regime, and the
problems of absence, cost, and incentives discussed in part II, cry out for
an alternative to our present state of climate change policy myopia.”
“Geoengineering--intentional, human-directed manipulation of the Earth's climatic systems--may be such an alternative. This part proposes that, unlike a regulatory
'Marshall Plan' of costly emissions reductions, technology subsidies, and other mitigation measures, a non-regulatory
'Manhattan Project' geared toward developing feasible geoengineering
remedies for climate change can meaningfully close the gaps in global
warming and avert many of its most dire consequences.”
“In some ways, this phase has already begun, as geoengineering has moved from the pages of science fiction to respectable scientific and policy journals. [FN127] One of the most encouraging proposals today focuses on the creation of vast carbon sinks by artificially stimulating phytoplankton growth with iron
'fertilizer' in parts of the Earth's oceans. [FN128] Another proposal suggests creating miniature, *106 artificial
'Mount Pinatubos' by allowing airplanes to release dust particles into the upper atmosphere, simulating the greenhouse- arresting eruption of Mount Pinatubo in 1991. [FN129]
“pp. 105-106, Geoengineering: A Climate Change Manhattan Project.”
In Policy Implications of Greenhouse Warming: Mitigation, Adaptation, and the Science Bases conclusion, the N.A.S. found that the most effective global warming mitigation turned out to be the spraying of reflective aerosol compounds into the atmosphere utilizing commercial, military and private aircraft. This preferred mitigation method is designed to create a global atmospheric shield which would increase the planet's albedo (reflectivity) using aerosol compounds of aluminum and barium oxides, and to introduce ozone generating chemicals into the atmosphere.
This method was the most cost effective, and yielded the largest benefits. It could also be conducted covertly to avoid the burdens of environmental protection and regulatory entanglements.
It is evident to anyone who cares to look up, that this mitigation is now being conducted worldwide and on a daily basis. It is certain that our leaders have already embarked on an immense geoengineering project; one in which they expect millions of human fatalities, and consider these to be acceptable losses.
This landmark study; the widespread experimentation and published papers of atmospheric theorists and scientists, combined with the visual evidence that atmospheric mitigations are being conducted in our skies, clearly shows that Chemtrail spraying has became a preferred solution to global warming mitigation.
The evidence is all around us. For example; this past week Boeing Aircraft received an enormous initial order from the Pentagon for 100 Boeing 767 tanker planes, to begin replacing the Air Force's aging fleet of KC-135s, the most commonly seen chemtrail spray plane. The final order will exceed 500 planes. There has been no mention of the usage of these aircraft.
Geoengineering is being carried on Earth on a staggering scale, without the impediment of environmental laws or regulatory constraints. This grand experiment is being conducted in full view, while being concealed in plain sight.
- - - - - - - -
The following excerpts detail the preferred geoengineering Mitigations for reducing greenhouse gasses, global warming and radiation from space. Quoted from: Policy Implications of Greenhouse Warming: Mitigation, Adaptation, and the Science Base - Panel on Policy Implications of Greenhouse Warming.
Evaluating Geoengineering Options
“Several geoengineering options appear to have considerable potential for
offsetting global warming and are much less expensive than other options
being considered. Because these options have the potential to affect the
radiative forcing of the planet, because some of them cause or alter a
variety of chemical reactions in the atmosphere, and because the climate
system is poorly understood, such options must be considered extremely
carefully. These options might be needed if greenhouse warming occurs,
climate sensitivity is at the high end of the range considered in this
report, and other efforts to restrain greenhouse gas emissions fail.”
“The first set of geoengineering options screens incoming solar radiation
with dust or soot in orbit about the earth or in the atmosphere. The second
set changes cloud abundance by increasing cloud condensation nuclei through
carefully controlled emissions of particulate matter.”
“The stratospheric particle options should be pursued only under extreme
conditions or if additional research and development removes the concern
about these problems. The cloud stimulation option should be examined
further and could be pursued if concerns about acid rain could be managed
through the choice of materials for cloud condensation nuclei or by careful
management of the system. The third class increases ocean absorption of CO2
through stimulating growth of biological organisms.”
Screening Out Some Sunlight
“Another option for mitigating a global warming would be to try to control the global radiation balance by limiting the amount of incoming radiation from the sun. This could be done by increasing the reflectivity of the earth, i.e., the albedo. Proposals for increasing the whiteness of roofs and surface features would have some effect, but only a fraction of incident solar radiation reaches the earth's surface and a purposeful change in albedo would have more impact if done high in the atmosphere. According to Ramanathan (1988), an increase in planetary albedo of just 0.5 percent is sufficient to halve the effect of a CO2 doubling. Placing a screen in the atmosphere or low earth orbit could take several forms: it could involve changing the quantity or character of cloud cover, it could take the form of a continuous sheet, or it could be divided into many
'mirrors' or a cloud of dust. Preliminary characterizations of some of the
possibilities that might be considered are provided below.”
“Although the space dust option does not appear to be sensible, computations
of the residence times of 0.2-µm dust above 20 to 40 km are of the order of
1 to 3 years (Hunten, 1975). It seems to be generally accepted that volcanic
aerosols remain in the stratosphere for several years (Kellogg and
Schneider, 1974; Ramaswamy and Kiehl, 1985). A screen could be created in
the stratosphere by adding more dust to the natural stratospheric dust to
increase its net reflection of sunlight.”
“Ramaswamy and Kiehl (1985) estimate that an aerosol dust loading of 0.2
g/m2 for dust with a radius of about 0.26 µm increases the planetary albedo
by 12 percent, resulting in a 15 percent decrease of solar flux reaching the
surface. Since an approximately 1 percent change in solar flux is required,
and their Figures 13 and 15 suggest that, at these loadings, the dust
effects may reasonably be extrapolated downward linearly, estimates will be
made by using a dust loading of 0.02 g/m2 with a particle radius of 0.26
“The dust in Ramaswamy and Kiehl's model is
distributed between 10 and 30 km in the stratosphere, uniformly over the
globe. The actual effect on radiative forcing of a global distribution of
additional dust would be somewhat greater at low than at high latitudes
because more of the sunlight is effective there for geometric reasons. This
would decrease slightly the equator-to-pole temperature gradients and might
have some effect on weather intensity. Presumably, this effect can also be
studied with global climate models.”
“Aircraft Exhaust Penner et al. (1984) suggested that emissions of 1 percent of the fuel mass of the commercial aviation fleet as particulates, between 40,000- and 100,000-foot (12- to 30-km) altitude for a 10-year period, would change the planetary albedo sufficiently to neutralize the effects of an equivalent doubling of CO2. They proposed that retuning the engine combustion systems to burn rich during the high-altitude portion of commercial flights could be done with negligible efficiency loss. Using Reck's estimates of extinction coefficients for particulates (Reck, 1979a, 1984), they estimated a requirement of about 1.168 ¥ 1010 kg of particulates, compared with the panel's estimate of 1010 kg, based upon Ramaswamy and Kiehl (1985). They then estimated that if 1 percent of the fuel of aircraft flying above 30,000 feet is emitted as soot, over a 10-year period the required mass of particulate material would be emitted.
However, current commercial aircraft fleets seldom operate above 40,000 feet
(12 km) and the lifetimes of particles at the operating altitudes will be
much shorter than 10 years.”
“An alternate possibility
is simply to lease commercial aircraft to carry dust to their maximum flight
altitude, where they would distribute it. To make a cost estimate, a simple
assumption is made that the same amount of dust assumed above for the
stratosphere would work for the tropopause (the boundary between the
troposphere and the stratosphere). The results can be scaled for other
amounts. The comments made above about the possible effect of dust on
stratospheric ozone apply as well to ozone in the low stratosphere, but not
in the troposphere. The altitude of the tropopause varies with latitude and
season of the year.”
“In 1987, domestic airlines flew
4,339 million ton-miles of freight and express, for a total express and
freight operating revenue of $4,904 million (U.S. Bureau of the Census,
1988). This gives a cost of slightly more than $1 per ton-mile for freight.
If a dust distribution mission requires the equivalent of a 500-mile flight
(about 1.5 hours), the delivery cost for dust is $500/t, and ignoring the
difference between English and metric tons, a cost of $0.50/kg of dust. If
1010 kg must be delivered each 83 days, (provided dust falls out at the same
rate as soot), 5 times more than the 1987 total ton-miles will be required.”
“The question of whether dedicated aircraft could fly longer distances at
the same effective rate should be investigated.”
Changing Cloud Abundance - The Approach
“Independent studies estimated that an approximately 4 percent increase in
the coverage of marine stratocumulus clouds would be sufficient to offset
CO2 doubling (Reck, 1978; Randall et al., 1984). Albrecht (1989) suggests
that the average low-cloud reflectivity could be increased if the abundance
of cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) increased due to emissions of SO2. It is
proposed that CCN emissions should be released over the oceans, that the
release should produce an increase in the stratocumulus cloud albedo only,
and that the clouds should remain at the same latitudes over the ocean where
the surface albedo is relatively constant and small.”
“Albrecht (1989) estimates that a roughly 30 percent increase in CCN would
be necessary to increase the fractional cloudiness or albedo of marine
stratocumulus clouds by 4 percent. Albrecht's idealized stratocumulus cloud,
which he argues is typical, has a thickness of 375 m, a drizzle rate of 1 mm
per day, and a mean droplet radius of 100 mm, and he assumes that each
droplet is formed by the coalescence of 1000 smaller droplets. The rate at
which the CCN are depleted by his model is 1000/cm3 per day. Consequently,
about 300/cm3 per day (30 percent of 1000) of additional CCN would have to
be discharged per day at the base of the cloud to maintain a 4 percent
increase in cloudiness. This assumes that the perturbed atmosphere would
also remain sufficiently close to saturation in the vicinity of the CCN that
additional cloud cover would be formed every time the number of CCN
Mass Estimates of Cloud Condensation Nuclei
“With Albrecht's assumption in mind that cloudiness in a typical ocean region is limited by the small number of CCN, we now extrapolate to the entire globe. On the average, 31.2 percent of the globe is covered by marine stratiform clouds (Charlson et al., 1987). If no high-level clouds are present, the number n of CCN that need to be added per day is 1.8 ¥ 1025 CCN/day. The mass of a CCN is equal to 4/3pr3 ¥ density, and it is assumed that the mean radius r is equal to 0.07 ¥ 10-4 cm (Charlson et al., 1987). Because the density of sulfuric acid (H2SO4) is 1.841 g/cm3, the CCN mass is 2.7 ¥ 10-15 g. The total weight of H2SO4 to be added per day is 31 ¥ 103 t per day SO2 if all SO2 is converted to H2SO4 CCN.
“To put this number in perspective, a medium-sized coal-fired U.S. power
plant emits about this much SO2 in a year. Consequently, the equivalent
emissions of 365 U.S. coal-burning power plants, distributed homogeneously,
would be needed to produce sufficient CCN.”
stimulation by provision of cloud condensation nuclei appears to be a
feasible and low-cost option capable of being used to mitigate any quantity
of CO2 equivalent per year. Details of the cloud physics, verification of
the amount of CCN to be added for a particular degree of mitigation, and the
possible acid rain or other effects of adding CCN over the oceans need to be
investigated before such system is put to use. Once a decision has been
made, the system could be mobilized and begin to operate in a year or so,
and mitigation effects would be immediate. If the system were stopped, the
mitigation effect would presumably cease very rapidly, within days or weeks,
as extra CCN were removed by rain and drizzle.”
schemes depend on the effect of additional dust compounds in the
stratosphere or very low stratosphere screening out sunlight. Such dust
might be delivered to the stratosphere by various means, including being
fired with large rifles or rockets or being lifted by hydrogen or hot-air
balloons. These possibilities appear feasible, economical, and capable of
mitigating the effect of as much CO2 equivalent per year as we care to pay
for. (Lifting dust, or soot, to the tropopause or the low stratosphere with
aircraft may be limited, at low cost, to the mitigation of 8 to 80 Gt CO2
equivalent per year.) Such systems could probably be put into full effect
within a year or two of a decision to do so, and mitigation effects would
begin immediately. Because dust falls out naturally, if the delivery of dust
were stopped, mitigation effects would cease within about 6 months for dust
(or soot) delivered to the tropopause and within a couple of years for dust
delivered to the mid stratosphere.”
systems would not have to be put into practice until shortly before they
were needed for mitigation, although research to understand their effects,
as well as design and engineering work, should be done now so that it will
be known whether these technologies are available if wanted.”
“Perhaps one of the surprises of this analysis is the relatively low costs at which some of the geoengineering options might be implemented.” (end of excerpts)
Sent from Michael W. Mandeville
PHOENIX FIVE EARTH CHANGES BULLETINS
MYSTERIOUS BOOMS RETURN
About a year ago, we reported on mysterious booms in North Carolina. Now they're back. In early January, a huge boom actually shook houses and rattled windows along the Carolina coast. Local TV channel WECT and sound technician Alex Markowski, who teaches at the University of North Carolina recorded the boom on tape. Markowski picked up the low frequency sounds on his special recording equipment.
Kim Lehman reports on the WECT TV 6 website that some people say the booms sound like a single loud bang, while others describe them as a series of explosions. This phenomena is known as the
“Seneca Guns,” and has been going on for hundreds of years. The name comes from Seneca Lake in New York, where the same sorts of sounds have been heard for years. Author James Fenimore Cooper called these booms the Seneca Guns in one of his short stories. Scientists say they are not earthquakes, thunder or sonic booms caused by supersonic planes, which are not allowed to fly across the continent.
Scientists speculate that the booms come from methane gas exploding on the ocean floor, which would be a result of global warming. A sudden burst of methane into the atmosphere led to the last period of extreme global warming 15,000 years ago. The booms give rise to the suspicion that this could be happening again.
SOURCE: Unknown Country
MORE MYSTERY BOOMS
Unknowncountry.com is continuing its reporting on the big booms that have been heard along the East Coat recently. They’ve been especially loud along the coast of North Carolina. They have been heard since the 1800s, when author James Fenimore Cooper called them
“Seneca Guns” in one of his short stories. Officials have determined that they are not caused by airplanes, earthquakes or storms.
They could be caused by methane explosions on the ocean floor, but many meteorologists think they are the result of cold air meeting up with warm Gulf Stream air. Like the large blocks of ice that occasionally fall from the sky, they could therefore be a product of global warming, even though they’re nothing new. The most recent
“Seneca gun” was heard around Wilmington, North Carolina in May, 2000. Like most of them, it caused a rash of phone calls to local police stations.
SOURCE: Unknown Country
LIKELY SONIC BOOM PUZZLES OFFICIALS
Fourth such mysterious tremor since 1989 rattles region
By Scott Streater
Pensacola News Journal, Wednesday, January 15, 2003
The large boom that shook walls and windows from Century to Milton on Monday remains a mystery - and probably will stay that way.
The issue remained a hot topic Tuesday among those who heard their windows rattle and saw desktop computers bobble like apples in a barrel of water. One woman in Bratt on Escambia County's north end said she lay on her bed in amazement as the ground moved like a wave, jostling her bed up and down.
“I kept rocking like I was on the water,” said Annie Lawson, 78.
What could cause such a powerful event? The most likely scenario: a sonic boom, probably from a military aircraft or a missile traveling beyond the 750 mph sound barrier, experts said.
Almost everyone contacted Tuesday believed this to be the case - even Joan Scott, who claims she was abducted in Gulf Breeze last year by extraterrestrials. Gulf Breeze is one of the hot spots in the nation for UFO hunters.
“I don't think this had anything to do with UFOs,” she said. “I think it was
the military. There's a lot they don't tell us.”
Eglin Air Force Base officials insist they had no aircraft in operation that could produce a sonic boom at the time of the event, which occurred shortly before 3 p.m. Monday. In addition, the base was not testing any weapons at the time of the incident, said base spokeswoman Lois Walsh. The same holds true for Pensacola Naval Air Station.
“It wasn't us,” said Pat Nichols, an NAS spokesman.
The best that scientists, government regulators and local leaders could do Tuesday to solve the mystery was chronicle what almost certainly did not cause the boom: It wasn't an earthquake.
No seismic activity was recorded in the region Monday by the U.S. Geological Survey's National Earthquake Information Center in Golden, Colo., said Waverly Person, a geophysicist.
“If it was an earthquake that affected two counties, it would show up on the seismic graphs,” said Martin Chapman, a seismologist at Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University.
It wasn't a meteor. No one reported seeing a meteor streaking across the sky. You would have seen it if there were a meteor nearby capable of a sonic boom the size of the one that residents claim to have heard Monday.
“If there's a meteor large enough to cause a sonic boom, it's going to be front-page news across the southeast,” Chapman said. It wasn't an industrial explosion. Area industries and the Florida Department of Environmental Protection, which regulates them, say there were no explosions at any area plant.
“There was absolutely nothing going on here that would cause that,” said Don Emert, manager of the Air Products & Chemicals Inc. plant in Pace.
Monday's mysterious boom was not the first time the local community has been left baffled by a large noise or tremor that had the power to shake walls and windows.
Between November 1989 and November 1991, there were at least three
“unknown tremors” that shook the ground. None was ever explained.
A November 1989 tremor that was confined to central Pensacola shook windows and baffled scientists.
Two months later, in January 1990, a large tremor that could be felt from Pace to Mobile knocked washing machines off balance and shook windows. But again, no one ever figured out what it was.
Nearly two years later, in November 1991, a third tremor shook the region from Perdido Key to Mobile.
An earthquake did hit southwest Alabama in October 1997, measuring 4.9 in magnitude, which could be felt as far away as Milton. There were no injuries, and no property was damaged in Northwest Florida.
But earthquakes in this region are extremely rare, experts say. In fact, Florida has recorded the fewest number of earthquakes in the United States in the last 200 years, said Chapman, the Virginia Polytechnic seismologist.
“We have had things like this in the past that we could not explain,” said Janice Kilgore, Escambia County's director of public safety.
“Normally, we usually find out from the military that they're running some
maneuver, and that answers the question.”
There are no plans to investigate the issue further.
“There's not a lot to work with,” said Rhonda Ray, a spokeswoman with the Escambia County Sheriff's Office.
“It's just basically a mystery.”
Whatever the cause, it had a great impact on area residents such as Barbara Heindl. She was standing in her kitchen, near Pensacola Regional Airport, when she heard what she thought was thunder slowly grow louder and louder.
“It just never stopped,” said Heindl, 68. “I wasn't panicked, but I thought, 'My God, what is this?' I thought a plane had crashed. I went out the back door, nothing. I went out the front door, nothing.
“It was really something,” she said. “I just can't get over it.”
MYSTERY BOOM ROCKS LOCAL AREA
Watch Video at: http://www.wpmi.com/mediacenter/default.aspx?videoId=151801
(MOBILE, Ala.) Jan 19 - It wasn't an earthquake, but it felt like it to many of you. What sounded and felt like an intense explosion rocked much of the local area around 2:30 Thursday afternoon, shaking homes and businesses and shaking up a lot of residents.
“I heard a shaking and a rattling,” said Lana Cook, who experienced the boom in her home off Moffet Road.
“It was like someone pounding with their fists.”
The boom created some scary moments for residents throughout much of the local area, who experienced what sounded and felt like an explosion.
“This was hard, loud and continuous,” Cook added.
Mobile County's Emergency Management Agency says crews were dispatched to check for any type of explosion or industrial accident.
They say they're looking at the incident as most likely a sonic boom whose intensity was amplified by local weather conditions. Chris Norton was at work at a warehouse off Moffett Road when he felt the boom.
“I kind of felt like the walls had expanded,” Norton said. “You could feel
the walls and doors sort of blow open. It was pretty intense.”
For the time being, the exact cause remains unknown. The National Earthquake Information Center in Colorado registered no unusual activity, and officials at Eglin Air Force Base say they had no high-speed flights that would have caused a sonic boom.
No injuries or structural damage was reported after this afternoon's boom.